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By Kiranmayee Y

The 7 quality standards applicable globally were first exemplified in 1998 by Germans in the name of German Standard DIN 2345 in the passing by years this was taken as an initiative by other countries in preparing and setting specific quality standards to the Language translators, interpretators, service providers, companies, individual clients etc., the other quality standards which followed the German are Austrian D1201 ONORM 2000, Chinese GB/T 19365 2004, American ASTM F2575-2006, European EN 16038 2006, Canadian Standards 2008, next in the line was ISO.
These standards were set to create a proper profile for translator, service providers and also to help the client to be able to communicate with the translator to get an localized expression and understandable text in the desired target from source-which could give a clear guidelines of the know-how of the product are the matter which the client wishes to be clear and straight to the end customer.
When at one time these were not set there used to be communication gap of what the source actually meant and what was given in the target these type of miscommunication creates an havoc both to the client and translator as well. Basing on these incidents these quality standards were created to give correct information, terminology, glossary etc but after all these developments also there are still some loop holes in the quality standards which are found more while translating the source from International language to a local language.
There used to be LISA Standards once people dealing with international translations and interpretations think that these standards are no more applicable but it is not the way till to date when a IT company deploys or out sources its work in the name of segment translation, Tag translation, link translation etc ., It also sends an excel sheet along with it after the translation is submitted the reviewer which checking the quality is asked to fill in the sheet with categories of errors like critical, Major, minor so on. Depending on this the evaluating percent of the translator is determined and sometimes the comments  are given in such a way by people who know less about the local language usage and who on the other hand are born and bought up outside the country with less knowledge about the language they are dealing and its terminology these are hired as in-house quality analysts who don’t have an idea of the tense changes also these review make the translators to give rework often without any pay or consideration to their extra work, dedication or time given, instead they are considered to be very poor in translation job and are incapable while these are the back ground politics being used by many without the knowledge are acceptance of what they are doing to the actual translation field.
On the other hand there would be some service providers who ask the translator to maintain the same meaning given by the client even when they are not fit enough for the scenario these in turn give in appropriate meaning to the original source when translated according to the norms of what the client thinks is correct. To make the client understand what is wrong there will even take months together so some service providers to avoid the loss of quality time they insist the translator to follow the norms given by the client even when it is found to be miscommunicated.
In some cases it is difficult for the client also to follow the translator for each and every document translated technical translation, management documents translation, legal, news, sports each and every specific subject as its own way of narration even in the local languages to know the tactics and technics a translator need to be adaptive and also master in the source language word to word translation will never give a quality sometimes it becomes meaningless.
Following maintain and knowing the 7 quality standards is a must to the translation field. At the same time there is a need for setting some standards to the clients when it comes to local languages even some service providers don’t know the difference between some local languages they just do it by the already given coding and assign the work. The standards to be set for the clients and service providers if it is a long term translation project for the company and an ongoing one they should have a basic know how of the local languages and a person who as good knowledge and who is capable of telling which form of the local language is being used and the differentiation between words used very often for a given group of words mentioned in source.
Globalization doesn’t mean that you follow only international languages in to widely known or used target language there more to it when people want to create global village it includes everything from small piece to big piece so maintain the already set quality standards and also making a path for new and upcoming changes working unitedly will be more easy for the translation world than falling apart.
Profile link: http://www.modlingua.com/interns/399-kiranmayee-y.html

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By Sneha Karati

This article is based on the lectures (meeting) and power point presentation by Ravi Kumar, director Modlingua. All credit goes to rightful owners.

What is Quality Standard?

Standards of quality and documentation are certain basic parameters or principles which come under standardization organization followed by translators or translation service providers and organizations in order to protect the interests of both the translation provider and patron.

How it came into being

In the 90s, quality standards and professionalism was not in the psyche of people globally. As a consequence there was a mismatch of expectations between clients and service providers. This mismatch of expectations resulted in conflict between both the parties followed by unexpected demands from translators and service providers. This created the necessity of development of professional or quality standards in translation.

The Germans were the first to develop and establish such quality standards namely DIN 2345. Adopted in 1998, it was developed to meet the industrial and technical specifications for the creation of manual designs for their automotive industry. This development gained awareness and created an importance for national standards in different parts of the world. Since then there have been concentrated efforts by language professionals and service providers involved in promotion and implementation of quality standards to prepare and disseminate guidelines for quality standards in translation activities.

The basic aim is to prepare a reference guide that will help the end user get a reasonable assurance of quality as per the stipulated standards and at the same time help the translator or translation service providers attain this goal and develop professionalism in offering translation services.

How are they applicable in translation services?

The standards are prepared by an officially acknowledged standard body. They are second in "authoritativeness" to legal provision. However, they are not legally binding. As there are levels in the binding nature of law (international vs. national law, legal provisions vs. edicts, technical regulations issued by public authorities etc.) the legal authority of standards may vary considerably. And some even become law (e.g. security standards for buildings). In brief they represent a sort of collective knowledge or know-how.
Standards are created to increase efficiency of work and the quality management of standardization process. It minimizes loss and helps in further improvement of procedures.
There are two concepts that one should take care of while taking translation standardization into consideration- linguistic and non-linguistic concepts

Linguistic concepts deal with basic standards: methodology like information processing, information and documentation and terminological principles defined in ISO/TC 37 and subject standards: not just limited to product but also testing, process, service, interface and data standards.

Non linguistic concepts deal with dialogues and MOUs between client and service provider to avoid future conflicts.

Usefulness of quality standards for language professionals, translators and service providers

Today the translators have to work in a fast changing market environment. With the evolving technology at a tremendous speed more specialization is required and new qualifications have to be acquired possibly every year. Besides, customer requirements and expectations are also changing rapidly. In such scenario, quality has become an indispensable trait of translation. By quality, the customer expects correct form and content, to be brief.

However expectations are not one sided and the translator too is influenced by standardization at his/her work environment. When it comes to standards concerning terminology and translation, the general opinion still prevails that "language cannot be standardized" as most written language is already highly standardized in the meaning of linguistic norms. In many written languages, language usage from the lexicon and orthography to grammar is highly 'prescribed' because today's languages are characterized by a tremendous evolution of their lexicon largely due to the development of terminologies in an ever increasing number of subject fields. This is the reason why technical, commercial and legal translation experts have given meaning not to terms but to concepts. Meaning, for one concept there is one term, in other words one term has one concept; there is no point of deviation. If you are defining one concept that has one term, the second, third and fourth term will be supporting term, however, one concept will have only one primary term. If one standard is defined for a particular concept then it will be used for that particular term and thus a language can be developed into a standardized form. This is the reason why these concepts are applied in terminology method.
Translation standards are directly linked to terminology management as well for a company/ industry. Variations can be minimized by putting or linking them to standards. For e.g. if a automotive industry of Canada and France agree that this particular term or concept will only use this particular word or term than it becomes a standardized term globally and if you deviate from this than it means you are making errors.

There is always a reference point needed on what on what words are to be avoided and what process needs to be followed. By incorporating quality standards one can increase efficiency of process for delivering flawless work to a client, minimize risk of bad quality, speed up work and maintain consistency.

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By Soham Buch

Business dictionary defines standardization as follows:

“Standardization is formulation, publication, and implementation of guidelines, rules, and specification of common and repeated use, aimed at achieving optimum degree of order or uniformity in a given context, discipline or field.”

Initially developed for industrial products to remain time, cost and material efficient is expanding its reach in various service sector aspects. In modern multi-linguist societies around the world, where translation from one language to the other have become basic requirement; standardization of languages that have survived remain an absolute necessity. Though it is evident that before a quarter of century such standardization was far from possible, despite translations and interpretations services were being provided for a long period of time. With recent trend of independent professionals carrying out language entrepreneurship widely, it is essential to establish standards to protect the global village from the ills of weaker language practices.

Established Practices
Since last couple of decades language project work standardization has progressed through many stages. The end results were the standards that are now widely recognized in the language profession. Some of them are DIN Standard, Australian, Chinese, American, European Union, Canadian Standards; focusing on different aspects such as processes, texts, and contracts etc. They are recent developments as they are into practice since the late ‘90s. It includes careful use of principles of management such that it reduces conflict between client and service provider on various aspects of the projects and its delivery. However, they are still in the process of development and changes as a language entrepreneurship profession would require it to be. They are desirable in the language practices; but not mandatory. Let’s look at one in detail.

ISO 17100:2015
The International Organization for Standardization standard 17100 applied in 2015 has been one of the recent standards that focused on process. It suggested that language projects ought to remain a team effort between service provider and client. It requires cooperation and coordination. For example, client and service providers should agree on the materialistic aspects of the projects in advance. It should also pass through the stages of terminology management, a summary of the interpretations to correctly understand the context. The qualifications of service providers, project executioner and editor needs to be conveyed before acceptance of the project and signing contract. After, signing contract service provider is free to clear his doubt and confusions with client. A project must be reviewed by the qualified editor before delivering to client. Even after the delivery of the project the client has the right of checking the correctness of the project and if found dis-satisfactory at any stage this needs to go under revision(s). It ensures satisfactory delivery and acceptance by both parties.

Utility for a Business Entity (Service Provider)
For a language entrepreneur, whether literary or not, the standards act as a guideline of the process one has to follow. At the same time for a company that provides such services; employing language professionals, standards provide a modus operandi. It helps in ensuring smooth delivery of services to client and punctuality in technical matters from employees. This structure the process of providing services in an orderly manner. It reduces chances of errors, omission, commission, interpretation, and delivery. The cross checking of one’s work by the other ensures minimal chances of mistakes and errors that can be revised.
Importance is also given to processes that are important before a project is accepted. For instance, terminology management, and conveying the qualification of the service provider and editor. Any project based on a contract, one of the basic standards, makes most of the things clear for both parties regarding various aspects such as fees, nature of project, context, delivery time, and acceptance of delivery of the project. Payment related conflicts can also be minimized and simplified by the adherence to the quality standards.
This ensures long term positive relationship with clients. It could result in referrals and recommendations that ensures the survival of business in cut throat competitive scenario.

Importance for the Customer (Beneficiary)
The standardization makes sure that the work is done as per standards with required checks. This ensures the beneficiary of the quality of the services. Further, with stage wise co-operation between the service provider and the client the client has a direct influence on the project. If he identifies a new perspective that requires changes it can be implemented in time during the execution of the project. He is also updated with the progress of the project. Any doubts and confusions with reference to the point of view, meanings of the words etc are clarified when occurred or before the projects is accepted so there would be lesser chances of misinterpretation. Equally satisfying thing remains on the quality part as a review is done by the qualified editor and in the case of an independent service provider the revisions are possible after the customer is delivered the completed projects. If in the contractual boundary if the client needs an explanation or revision to the work, it is provided by the service provider. It nurtures the relationship between the buyer and supplier so that the client is ensured of quality delivery in long-term.

With numerous languages practice without standardization poses a huge limitation. Having limited awareness of standards various myths have sprung up. There have been many point of view of language projects that require the contextual interpretation. Without it the whole project would lose its credibility despite being technically correct and adherence to standards.

Largely standardization for language projects have provided benefits to service provider, company or a professional, and customers. Adherence to standards have improved quality of the work, credibility of the service provider and satisfaction of the beneficiary. Memberships of such standardizing institutions have supported businesses with more clients and reliability because of their recognition. It is in the interest of the modern-day language professional to be aware of such practices and using it for the benefit of the society at large.

Author’s Profile - 

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By Ticiane Martins

Translation involves much more than simply make the transition of a text from one language to another. To perform this task, it is necessary to understand the text, dive into its meaning − considering its language of origin − and then search in the source language a manner of communicating, in the best way possible, everything that is proposed in the initial text. Translating, therefore, involves cultural knowledge, investigative ability, curiosity, knowledge of the nuances of the languages in which you are working, fulfilment of the customers requirements and, also, it is important surrender oneself completely to the text. Translation, thus, involves human experience and, as such, always reveals some subjectivity of both the person who makes the translation of the text  and the person who will review it. How, then, can you maintain some control over the process of translation to ensure, as far as possible, that the translated text will be satisfactory to the customer? The quality control of the translation is one possible answer to this question, considering its development over time and the tools that offers some objectivity to the profession.

Globalization and development of communication made the translation a necessity to strengthen the human relationship, especially considering the possibilities to intensify negotiations and economic or political relations between the countries. Parallel to this, the technology development was also reflected in the process of translation and the translator has now a higher demand for labor, with requirements for agility and for
suitability for the standardization of their work, as far as possible, to meet customer expectations.

To meet this demand for quality control in the translation service - although considering that language, like all the cultural process, is dynamic and is always undergoing change and development and that the interpretations given by the translator should be considered when checking the quality of a translation -, some structural characteristics of a language can be analyzed in a stage of quality control (grammar, punctuation and terminology, for example). Some examples of the methodologies used to verify the quality of a translation are represented by the American Translation Service Standard (ASTM), the German standard DIN 2345, The European Quality Standard for Translation Services (EN 15038), the J2450 of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2450), the Chinese quality standard, the Canadian translation services standards, LISA best practice guide and ISO.

According to the SAE J2450 standard, these points to be analyzed can be summarized in terms of: wrong term, syntactic error, omission, word structure or agreement error, misspelling, punctuation error, miscellaneous error. An analysis of these points, in terms of numbers, could assist in finding specific problems in the translation.For the company or professional who provides translation services, maintaining a glossary with the key terms of a technical area can facilitate the quality control of the final text, taking into account the needs of the customer. The development of computer-assisted translation (CAT) tool helps to exercise control of quality in addition to the forms of manual checking. In accordance with the text "Controlo de Qualidade na Tradução" of Miriam Santos, this influence of Information Technology in the translation service began to be noticed in the 1980s, causing the transition of a “manual and intuitive” to a systematic and technological verification of the translated texts. Thus, the author asserts that the quality control of the translation services has been developing with the improvement of translation tools, with the increase of terminology databases, and with the continuous improvement of check lists and control, among others. To ensure the development of a good translation work, some key points should be checked even by the translator who works independently, which would be: incomplete translation of a segment of the text, spacing of the text, punctuation, numeric standard for the source language, consistency with the technical terms in the glossary. Miriam Santos sustains that in the future the translation field will need more often of this kind of systematization, in which the translation is seen as a product.

It must be emphasized, however, that the term "quality" has no universal definition and its meaning does not establish only one way of analyzing the aspects of a translation, in other words, its meaning varies according to the objectives of a translation and, thus, the standard of quality for literary translation, for example, should not be the same as that used for the translation of a text of a technical area. In this way, it must be considered that "quality" is a term flexible and which does not represent the standardization of the meanings of a translation, but rather a way of ensuring that the translation meets certain criteria (which should be in accordance with the goals of the text) for broaden the perception of translation as a serious activity that is committed to its continued improvement.

SANTOS, Miriam. Controlo de Qualidade na Tradução. In: http://let.unb.br/espanhol/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/SANTOS-QUALIDADE.pdf

Quality Standards and translation.In: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QpAL-5eAMrE

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modlingua profileBy Margaret Wiens

The advent of globalization has led to an ever-increasing need for translation services around the world. In fact, the demand was so high and so sudden that for many years no regulations could be standardized. Translators simply relied on their own beliefs and experiences about what quality translation should entail, but ultimately there were no guidelines that translators or employers could use to verify that the translation was an accurate, readable representation of the source text. In the interest of protecting both parties, quality standards were developed in various countries at both the national and, more recently, the individual level.
Quality standards—both linguistic and non-linguistic—have different applications and uses for translators and their clients. Adapting a certain set of quality standards may be a condition of membership to a translation association such as the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario (ATIO). These standards may include specifications for the grammar and style of the target language, term usage and formatting, as well as a general methodology for terminological research and self-editing. The coveted title of “certified translator” tells potential clients in two short words that the translator will employ the quality standards of that association throughout their work. Translators or companies can also be certified by standardization organizations, which can add another level of authority to their name, designating them as language professionals and showcasing their training, skills and qualifications.
These standards may also be voluntary but nonetheless useful for language professionals. Translators who lack the experience necessary to apply for certification from a professional association may still use quality standards in their self-marketing practices. By advertising that they prescribe to a certain set of standards, whether it be EN 15038, CAN CGSB 131.10-2008 or ISO 17100:2015, the translator is communicating to potential clients their personal beliefs about quality in translation and the duties they expect to perform for every project they accept. Translators may also choose to formulate their own set of standards based on those of other standardization organizations, as well as their experiences as a language service provider. Freelancers may find this practice particularly useful because it may allow them to distinguish themselves from their competitors and attract clients that share their values. Furthermore, they will be able to avoid problematic projects and instead find clients that will both compensate them fairly for their work and with whom they can develop a long-standing professional relationship.
Once a translator is approached for a project, quality standards will continue to help them when communicating with the client. It is important that the two parties reach a consensus on which services the translator will provide and how long the process should take before beginning the project. In so doing, both parties will have equal expectations for the project and legal recourse if certain stipulations in the contract are not met. Quality standards can also give translators the opportunity to educate the client on what services they should be asking for and what should be included in a project. Then, if the client is amenable to additional services such as editing, revision, post-editing, proofreading, source language editing, formatting or subtitling, the translator can provide those services or recommend a colleague.
Quality standards also encompass the unification of terminology, which allows the process to become more efficient and gives translators a starting point when encountering new projects and domains. This is especially important for effective project management because access to term bases and translation memories enables more new translators with less experience in a domain to learn the correct terminology in the early stages of a project. Furthermore, spending less time researching terminology also enables the translator to allocate more time to sentence structure, idiomatic phrasing, grammar and logical flow, creating a higher quality text in the process. Quality standards not only benefit current translators, but also the future ones. Having a set of standards to strive for provides translation associations and academic institutions with the tools to better train the next generation of translators, and the students with the context to fully understand the need for high quality translation in their work and the industry as a whole. As standardization continues to evolve, new translators will incorporate these philosophies into their methodology, and their skills and confidence will only improve over time.

In the end, quality standards in translation must not serve as a strict set of rules that we impose on all translated material, as this does not guarantee an accurate translation. It is widely recognized that every text has a unique message, which will in turn be interpreted differently by different cultures and contexts. Rather, quality standards must remain guidelines for project management and the widespread availability and utilization of the proper resources. Until a universal quality assessment method is perfected, the best way to ensure high quality is to continue to train both new and experienced translators in writing, reading comprehension, communication and translation technology, and to provide constructive feedback so that translators can continue to strive for the highest quality standards.
Malcolm Williams "The Application of Argumentation Theory to Translation Quality Assessment." Meta 462 (2001): 326–344.
DOI: 10.7202/004605ar
Wikipedia. Translation-quality standards. July 6, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation-quality_standards

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By Bhavana Kumari 

India‘s translation markets is not as organized as it is there in the west. Language learners begin doing translation as a freelancer for certain consultancies; very few join the national level or governmental level service. India is a land of more 31 official language out of which 22 languages are recognized by the constitution of India. The Census of India 1961 identified 1,652 languages out of which 880 are still in use. Such a huge number of languages spoken in one country is in itself incredible. No other country has this kind of significant characteristics. If the literature of one language is being translation into other language then India will become world’s largest translation market. But this kind of initiatives must be taken with the help of government agencies and under the good guidance of language and translation experts.

There is lack of national platforms where new translators could be trained as the per the international quality standard and help them in engaging with the international translator’s community. Although Indian government has taken initiatives like National Translation Mission (NTM). It was set up as per National Knowledge Commission's recommendation. The Ministry of Human Resource Development has designated Central Institute of Indian Languages as the nodal organization for the operationalization of NTM. This was a landmark project that was aimed to make literature and knowledge of one language accessible to the people with a different language background.

In 2000-2001, Government of India launched mission-oriented program for Technology Development Indian Languages (TDIL). Its focus was on seven major initiatives by then: Knowledge Resources, Knowledge Tools, Translation Support Systems, Human Machine Interface Systems, Localization, Standardization and Language Technology Human Resource Development and others. Some of the prominent ongoing TDIL projects are English to Indian Languages Machine Translation System (CDAC, Pune ), English to Indian Languages Machine Translation (MT) System with Angla-Bharti Technology (IIT Kanpur), Indian Language to Indian Language Machine Translation System (IIIT Hyderabad), Sanskrit-Hindi Machine Translation (University of Hyderabad, JNU) etc.

Indian Translators Association (ITAINDIA) is a non-profit body registered under societies registration act XXI, 1860 of India and recognized by world apex body of translators International Federation of Translators (Fédération Internationale Des Traducteurs (FIT) with its headquarters in Switzerland. This association is a good step in the direction of uniting the wide spread translators and interpreters community of India but it is not enough.

Lack of awareness of the translation quality standards pull translators on the back foot. They are not able to stand at par with the international and global standard of translation, thus fail to gain professional expertise in their field. All the major economies in the world have set their quality standards and all professional translators have to follow them, otherwise their works are rejected. This kind of awareness also helps them to increase and polish their language skill and their works are later read by the people across the world. In India, we lack such kind of awareness and training. So many language experts with immense potential to grow are not able to excel. They works are not recognized by the world community. A little bit of professional training is required to match up with the global market. Translators and interpreters also have to be given such kind of training.

Translation Bureau (Government of Canada) has established three acceptable quality ratings and one unacceptable rating. Minor errors in translation and terminology especially in publications, regulatory documents, books, articles are not at all acceptable. In these domains the translation has to be perfect, accurate and uniform with standard terminologies and expressions. A slight mistake will ruin the essence of whole academic work and knowledge wouldn’t be conveyed properly.

Translation is most tedious and complicated job and if the work is not done properly keeping the quality standard in mind then there is no use of translating the original text. A poor quality will not attract good readers and stopping the knowledge to flourish. Today there are online translation softwares, various language technologies through which the translations can be done. But the difference between mechanical and manual translation is very well visible in the final works.  Even if one is editing the text that has been translated using software the quality certification of the editor has to be taken into consideration. In fact, the quality standard covering machine translation (ISO 18587) states that the person who post-edits any machine-translated material needs to have the equivalent qualification to a translator covered by ISO 17100 quality standards. Anyone hires a language expert only when he/she is not capable of speaking the target language such case the translators have to play a very crucial role.
Therefore, it is very important that anyone who is in the field of translation service must follow a standard quality assessment rating. This will help them to make a excellent professional carrier.

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Definition: Quality standards 
A product is said to be of quality if it is free from any manufacturing defect, deficiency or significant variation in order to do certain specific standards need to be set so that uniformity is achieved in the entire set of products being manufactured. The standard defined should be such that the features and specifications offered by the product should be capable to meet the implied need of the product.
Indian quality standards
It is often pointed out that a man is at maximum a manufacturer of one product or a single service provider. But the very same man is a consumer of more than a 1000 products and services in his daily life. Every person is a consumer. We use thousands of products and pay for hundreds of services that we use for our day to day activities. It is obvious in such a scenario that all of us have gone through instances of service or product dissatisfaction. But unless it is something severe in nature, we avoid getting into the depth of the case. Even in cases where the monetary loss associated with the defective service or product is a reasonable amount, the companies are quick to cover up for it and the issue is settled. But there are cases where we feel cheated and there is no adequate compensation given but we do not have time in our fast moving lives to pursue the case further or some people do not have the correct knowledge. The general tendency is to avoid buying the product in future. While this strategy may work in small cases of petty financial loss but when the stake is higher ( eg - gold items, LCD TV, automobiles ) a onetime loss can be  too severe to ignore. The speed at which telecom services have grown over the last decade, there is no surprise that a huge number of calls are made by customers alleging fraud by telecom companies to their respective customer helplines.
Need for quality standards
Quality has different meanings subject to different interpretation, it may mean hygiene in health and hospitality, safety in electrical and electronics and in services it may refer to speed and reliability. Cost of a product may also be referred to as a quality measure. But we will refer to quality in the operational context as conformance to establish standards. Quality controls refer to activities undertaken to maintain specific quality of products within reasonable limits. It involves the determination of quality standards to ensure that the established standards are followed. The aim is to secure a reasonable product quality at a competitive cost level by achieving a systematic control over the variables involved in manufacturing the product.
Maintenance of a satisfactory level of quality is essential for the success and survival of any company. Quality control offers advantages such as improvement in the brand image, facilitation of standardization and cutting down of costs by avoiding defective production. It also leads to increase in sales and makes the company competitive by helping in accurate prediction of costs involved.
Certification marks in India
India has a system of product certification governed by laws made by the parliament. These certification hold a mandatory legal status for essential products to an advisory one for others. All certifications related to industrial products are governed by the national standards body - BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) while standards for other areas (like agricultural products) are developed by other agencies. The ISI mark and the BIS hallmark are the most significant.
ISI mark
It certifies that an industrial product conforms to standards laid by the BIS.
BIS hallmark
This mark certifies the purity of gold jewellery (since1999) and silver jewellery (since2005)
After knowing all about Indian quality standard. I believe that more than half of the population of India is uneducated. As a result they are unaware of all these quality standards. Some are unaware because they are uneducated whereas others are ignorant if it is a matter of petty amount people tends to ignore the case. Just because of the illiteracy of the people of India there is less development and less scope of globalisation. Therefore there are very less possibilities for the international companies to make in India. And if there is no scope of globalisation than there is no need of translators and language professionals in international business industry.

Therefore the illiteracy of the people of India is hampering the professional development of translators and language professionals. 
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By Himani Khera
Quality standards
Like any supplier of goods or services, a translator potentially bears ethical and legal obligations toward his patron. This has turned to be of enormous importance with the development of language industry at global scale. For the protection of both parties, standards have been developed that seek to spell out their mutual duties.

As interest in quality management has grown, specific quality standards have been developed for translation services. These have included the Italian UNI 10574, the German DIN 2345, the Austrian Onorm D 1200 and Onorm D 101, and the Canadian CAN CGSB 131.10. in 215, EN 15038 was replaced by ISO 17100:2015.

When do we need a translator? When we don’t know the targeted language. However, it is difficult to assess the quality of the translated text. Anyhow, there are some translation agencies which offer quality standard certifications which show that how they are managing the processes, which also means that business follows a professional framework that is independently assessed as being fit for purpose.

Quality of a translation service is not only to determine the effectiveness of work but also the elements of the service. For example: speed of delivery, account management and technical aspects including the way your information is handled. Not only does the quality standard certification shows us the level of service to be offered but it also helps translation customers understand price differentials between different providers. Furthermore, it also helps to identify the quality focus of translation services that use different quality standards. In other words, it helps clients to understand what questions they should put up to the translation agency before signing them.

Before we move further, we need to know what exactly standard means:
Standard is level of quality, required or agreed and is a measure for comparison purpose.

5 key standards about which everyone must know are:

  1. Get the bigger picture- understand what quality means for services and processes.
  2. Check your Translation Services
  3. Optimize your Interpretation Services
  4. Assess the quality of a Translation
  5. Know the Techie standards for Exchanging Data

There are two main types of translation quality standards:

  • Process-oriented: these standards focus on establishing and maintaining a process of translation, review and approval that, when followed diligently by qualified professionals, will consistently result in translations that meet customer expectations.
  • Metrics-oriented: these standards focus on establishing actual quality metrics against which a translation can be measured and rated as high or low quality.

Translation service industry is an industry where expectations of consumer play a vital role. But, once as noticed, due to lack of consumer oriented guidelines for translation services, there had been a mismatch of assumptions and goals between the consumer and the service provider which further affected the project quality. This situation created the need to stipulate translation standards to protect and educate translation consumers and help the translator develop professionalism.

To overcome the mismatch between client and the translator, there have been concerted efforts by professionals, language service providers and organizations involved in promotion and implementation of quality standards to prepare and disseminate guidelines for quality standards in translation activities.

There have been some assumptions related to quality standards like improving quality; cost and time are antithetical goals. If a company improves quality it will only be through increased cost or longer turn-around since quality assurance is an added process that takes time to complete. But the reality is just not the same. It’s actually almost every process will have inefficiencies that can be corrected to gain improvements at essentially no cost. The problem is in identifying these inefficiencies – while some may be obvious, such as manual processing of files that could be easily automated, not all problems are immediately obvious, and some may be so deeply rooted in a process that they cannot be seen at all without careful examination of the entire translation process.

There are few problems regarding quality standards which could be summed up as follows:

  • Translation quality must include localization quality and must be applied from the uniform definition of quality stipulated in ISO. It is also important to check the definitions of quality assurance, quality assessment and quality management.
  • Certification could be granted to a person, a company or a process. None of the standards evaluated has defined procedures and hierarchies about this matter.
  • The use of technology for translation tasks has to be precisely described as it is in existing standards.
  • Copyrights specifications and rules should be clearly stated.
  • All the items that build a Code of Ethics have to be defined, taking the necessary definitions from other ISO-Standards.
  • Services different from translation must be determined, listed, classified and described as clearly as possible.

With its unique linguistic history and culture and growing consumer profile, India is a highly potential market along with the other emerging markets like China and Latin America. Simultaneously, the nascent industry has lots to learn from industry leaders who have gone much ahead in terms of developing well organized translation management process that involves terminology management and standardization of terms, quality control standards and customer satisfaction, and above all use of technology including human assisted machine translation. In this regard our Indian government, academic institutions and translators association can collaborate with each other device and implement mechanism that meets market demands and expectations.

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By Dujender Yadav

Use of Quality Standards for Language professionals, Translators and Service providers.

It is a very important thing to know the need of these standards and it is very simple that to avoid the collision of the expectations of the client and the translator or service provider. Because expectations of consumer or client play a very vital role in translation services. If we do not have these guideline or standards it can cause conflicts between the consumer or client and the translator or the service provider. In the absence of consumer oriented guidelines for translation services, on many occasions there had been a mismatch for assumptions and goals between the people requesting a translation and the people supplying the translation. And this thing affects the quality of the project. This situation demanded the need of quality standards to protect and educate translation consumers and help the translator develop professionalism. All the major countries have their quality standards such as BIS in India.

Very firstly the Germans set up these standards DIN 2345 in 1998. After the Germans, the other national standards were developed and gained importance. There are some certifying organizations in translation which defines or set up the above said standards such ISO in India. These standards are defined to help in increasing the efficiency of the process and minimize the loss. Customer expectations of quality in translation refers to the correct form and the content. Quality is a subject of standards such as The American Translation Service Standard (ASTM-American Society for testing Materials), the Europeans Quality Standard for Translation Services (EN 15038) ISO standards etc.

Translation is mainly based on the terms, means the terms used must carry the same meaning as of the term of the source language. So translation standards are mainly based on the terminology management. Standardization provides the reference point in the translation. Quality standards actually helps both translator as well as the client, as it is defined that after applying these standards the client will get the good quality of work done but translator also have the benefit of improving his skills, increasing his speed, he/she could provide a flawless work to the client. It will save the time also by reducing the multiple times of proofreading. It helps to setup a long term relationship between the client and the translator. As per J2450 of Society of Automotive Engineers some points are summed up in terms of-  wrong term, syntactic error, omission, word structure, misspelling, punctuation error, miscellaneous error.

Above these are not only the terms but these are the points to referred when doing translation for the purpose of setting some reference. On the basis of these terms is defined the translation standard  that how many wrong terms are avoidable or which misspelled word could be avoided and etc. This makes the comparison of different text simple and makes a translator aware about the future translations. To be more professional a translator or a client should be aware of these standards. There are some check points of non linguistic aspects in quality control  also that should also be considered as well and these are-segment level checks, inconsistency, punctuation, numbering, quotation marks, terminology etc. A translator should always keep these points in his/her mind to be more precise.

As per Jiri Stejskal, Ex-President of American Translators Association,” the concept of quality is plagued with the same problem as the concept of translation, it is a mixed bag with an enormous spread between the creative and the normative”. It is not necessary to be a certified translator but it is necessary to do a standardized translation to become more professional. A translator should always know about the demands of the client and then get some keywords checked from the client itself so that he could not say that you have done a bad translation. A good translator is one who always satisfy the client with his service in terms of time and in terms of quality. Both of these two things could be managed by maintaining some standards. These points helps a translator to make things easy for him to deal with the client and it will also be easy for the client to check whether the job done is good or bad. So both the translator and the client should be aware of the quality standards. And at last I would  thank Mr. Ravi kumar sir for his guidance and providing me the platform to share my knowledge. 

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By Leonardo Faig

One of the most important things when you are a translator (a freelancer, in-house translator or a professional working for a company) is to know how to keep your clients and deal with them, make contact with them, solve their doubts and show them that you care about them as people and not just as clients. (you can check this article here: http://modlingua.com/blogs/687-the-bond-between-freelancers-and-clients.html ) This is important because your clients will make propaganda about you and your job. Of course, this is not the only thing you have to concern. Another aspect you should take care of is the quality of your work. Well, you need to keep studying and practicing your target languages, otherwise you will suffer from lack of experience, vocabulary and terminology. Your work need to have a certain pattern.

To do so, you need to apply some quality to your job. But what does that mean? According to Business Dictionary, quality means “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.” A translator provides certain services to the clients, and he needs to satisfy them in every aspect. Besides the deadline, another important thing is accuracy of information.

Imagine this situation: You work for a huge medicinal company. They need a translation for one specific language to another, so they can start producing more medicine to a specific country. If you are not accurate, you can even get some medicine with different substance that could do a different effect to a patient. This happens with a lot of different areas, like business area, technical documentation, etc.

The quality standards for translations are important to develop terminology as well. In the situation above, if a translator are working with a company that sells medicine, sometimes a substance may change or be added in a product. The terminology must be altered in this case, also a memory (when we talk about CAT Tools) with this specific substance. A lot of people think that this is some rare case, that language and linguistics is something that doesn’t change a lot. Language are evolving all the time, and it is important for the translator (and also his employer) to be updated and get the right terminologies.

Because of that, the international industry specific standards has been developed, so the LSPs (Language Service Providers) could work and deliver a product with quality to their clients. Two types of standards are the process-oriented standard and the metrics-oriented standards.

The process-oriented standard focus on maintenance of translation and revisions by great professionals of the area. The metrics-oriented standard focus on quality metrics used by softwares and hardwares that will define if a translation is good or bad. In a nutshell, the process-oriented standard is about the professional behind the job. Sometimes the employer will offer training sessions, for example, to make his employee a better and more qualified professional. The metrics-oriented standard focus on technology rather than people.

Both processes are important and widely used. The ISO 9001 (a process-oriented standard) is one of the most widely recognized quality standard. ISO means International Organization for Standardization, and those standards are used in a lot of different workplaces (not just the translation field), like industry, technology, healthcare, etc.

So, the question is: Are the quality standards that important to translators? The answer is: yes. But it is not just about that. For a person who runs a company, it is important to invest in the translators. If this person will use ISO standards, for example, he will need good and qualified professionals. To do so, he will have to look for a good translator or apply ongoing trainings, realized internships and invest in his crew. With a little bit of both investments, the company will grow. It is hard and requires money at first, but the results will come in handy.

If you want to know more about ISO, you can go to their website. There, they explain about different types of ISO quality standards to each kind of field. It is interesting to explore the amount of utilities for a standard. They even have a video showing what they can do for a company. Of course, ISO is just one of a big amount of quality standards on market. You just have to find which one suits you best.

Knowing that, if you run an agency or a company and need to grow, always invest in quality standard and also in your employees.   

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