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By Garima Jand

Quality is the degree of excellence of standard or level. It matters for anything and everything that we use or buy. We expect that every product should be of the best quality. Similarly, translation also involves quality. The language service industry has a number of different quality standards. They are also different for translation and interpretation. Translation refers to written information, whereas interpretation refers to spoken information. Organizations around the world, involving a multitude of sectors, missions, and mandates, rely on translation for content as diverse as product labels, technical documentation, user reviews, promotional materials, annual reports, and much, much more. Quality standards in translation are of various kinds. ISO 17100:2015 does not apply to interpreting services. There are specific quality standards which have been developed for translation services. A few of them include include the Italian UNI 10574, the German DIN 2345, the Austrian Önorm D 1200 and Önorm D 1201, and the Canadian CAN CGSB 131.10. ISO 9001 is the foundation of quality management. Quality standards ensure improved service performance, improved and well-organized workflows, credibility and consistency.
 
In the case of our country, not all translators are aware about the concept of quality standards. There are a very few translation companies which are aware and follow these standards and own the marks. Awareness of things has always been a major issue in our country and it lacks in some people involved in language services in India. Although, as the years are passing by, people are getting aware slowly.
As a matter of fact, it is a problem for those translators who are not aware of these quality standards, especially for translators dealing with foreign languages. That is because the people in foreign countries are well aware about all aspects of translation. Awareness lacks here in India. It affects every individual when he/she is unaware about something. In a way, it hampers the professional growth and development of translators. For example, when a language professional has the ISO 17100:2015 mark, the client is assured that he will get the best quality work from the translator. So undoubtedly, having such a mark is always a plus to any translator’s career. But, it is not at all easy to have that mark. They seem to be fancy names, but it is an expensive badge too. It costs a lot every year for a translation company to have a mark of quality standard. And we, as translators cannot increase our price saying that we have a particular mark of quality standard. This cannot be the reason for our increment of charges. However, providing the best quality work is the duty of every professional.

There are a few people in India who do not know enough about the latest things which are coming up in this global world. We need to stay aware and conscious about all the happenings in the world. It is very important to be with the time and have proper knowledge of all the events of the globe and have our own perception of the situation or fact. If a person remains unaware, it definitely obstructs a person’s growth in some or the other way.

A Quality standard provides requirements for the core processes, resources, and other aspects necessary for the delivery of a quality translation service that meets applicable specifications. In today’s world, the global translation market has grown immensely in the past ten years. A significant number of companies are entering foreign markets. It means that companies or businesses that have never dealt with foreign countries and looking for translation services. This is the case in lot of fields including law firms, banks, technical firms and many more. Quality standards exist to ensure translations of professional level. When there are crucial documents of any business, proper translation is very important to avoid problems in future. Translation is the conversion of a text from one language into another. Hence, the content of any text should not be changed in any circumstance.

Translation quality standards play a very important role but they are no substitute for providing on-going training and feedback to translators, as well as arming translators and editors with the necessary resources and information on the subject matter, context in which the translation will be used, etc. Translation teams who are equipped with glossaries, style guides, support materials, and contextual information can produce a translation of much higher quality than those who are just handed a text with no background. Therefore, a polite and helpful behavior along with complete support of the client, translators can provide the best possible work Being a part of the language services industry involves undoubtedly complete linguistic knowledge of two or more languages. It is every translator’s responsibility as well as his legal obligation to provide the best quality translation even if he does not have the mark of quality standard.

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BY DEVANSHU BHATT
 
Assessing the quality of a translation service isn’t just a case of determining the effectiveness of the language work. You’ll also want to consider elements of the service such as how well your account is managed, speed of delivery, ease of doing business and technical aspects including the way your information is handled. The latter is particularly important if sensitive materials are being handled, and you’ll want some assurances about data protection if this is the case. All these factors need to be considered alongside the quality of the translated material.
Quality standard certifications help assess all of these business factors, giving you some peace of mind.

It can be difficult to get visibility of a company’s IT infrastructure and processes, which is one reason why certification is useful. It means a third party assesses their provision to ensure it is fit for purpose and you can feel confident using the service. Certification will also cover the company’s data protection policies and processes.

TranslateMedia was most recently audited in July 2016 and we are certified as ISO 17100 compliant. We were previously assessed using the older EN 15038 certification standard, which has now been replaced. There are very few differences between the 15038 and the ISO 17100 – in fact 15038 forms the basis of the more recent standard. Most of the differences are in terms of translator qualifications and record storage.
Introduced in 2015, the ISO 17100 quality standard sets out certain requirements for the core processes and resources that a translation service needs to offer. It’s a way of ensuring that both the processes and resources delivered will meet the client’s specifications. As a recent qualification, it’s useful because it takes into account the latest data protection concerns.

Standards of this type include those of the ISO 9000 series. As interest in qualitymanagement has grown, specific quality standards have been developed fortranslation services. These have included the Italian UNI 10574, the German DIN 2345, the Austrian Önorm D 1200 and Önorm D 1201, and the Canadian CAN CGSB 131.10. This new department is designed to give our readers need-to-know information about quality, as well as tips for maximizing today's technology and techniques.

With so many numbers and letters, it is difficult to keep all of the quality standards straight, particularly for those new to the industry. Quality has compiled a brief summary of some of the more widely used industry standards.

ISO 9001: 2000 specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for continual improvement of the system and the assurance of conformity to customer and applicable regulatory requirements. All requirements of this international standard are generic and are intended to be applicable to all organizations, regardless of type, size and product provided.

Where any requirements of this international standard cannot be applied because of the nature of an organization and its product, this can be considered for exclusion. Where exclusions are made, claims of conformity to this international standard are not acceptable unless these exclusions are limited to specific requirements (as found in clause 7 of the standard) and such exclusions do not affect the organization's ability, or responsibility, to provide product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements.

Quality standards were developed for manufacturing business, most related to industrial production. The creation of standardized machinery would increase the productivity, avoiding errors and maintaining a specific line of design for the product. That way, saving time and money for the clients and guaranteeing a higher level of quality.

With globalization and its enormous technological advances, which are increasing every year exponentially, this expression is recently being related to the translation business. We experienced a shift in the customer’s requirements and expectations in relation to the translation service. Translators are required to work more efficiently and standardized not only in the linguistic and terminological field but also in the translation company’s organization.
 
However, standardizing companies that deals with different linguistic pairs is a very subjective process since each country has its own standardization organization in order to deal with processes and services. Therefore, translation companies are applying the International Standardization Organization. The ISO 9001 handles how to treat your employees and organize them accordingly to the client’s necessity. An ISO system takes into account the client experience as much as the industry expectations, using this system the company can better identify problems regarding its management and increase efficiency and productivity lowering the costs for both clients and service providers.  
 
Now, specifically for the translation services providers, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) published the EN: 15038, which is the European equivalent of ISO. It is a deeply thorough standard, which is divided in three major sections. The first one being basic requirements, this section summarizes the competences that is required for the translator, as in the technological and communication equipment necessary for the use of each type of job (technical, commercial, legal translation).
 
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By Mahenur Alam

LINGUISTIC AND NON LINGUISTIC ASPECTS IN TRANSLATION

As language may not always be used to communicate, so also communication may be possible without necessarily using spoken language. For example sign language. Deaf and dumb people have their own non-linguistic code (gestures and hands signs) to express themselves or to communicate with one another. The linguistic key is the tone, manner or spirit in which an act is performed. Linguistic communication differs from non-linguistic communication. For communicating linguistically, the whole language is available. Sometimes one can communicate in even more than one language, whereas the choices are limited for a non-linguistic communicator, such as, facial expressions, signs and gestures, movements of hands etc. An interesting point here is that even linguistic communication is accompanied by certain elements of non-linguistic communication. While talking a speaker often uses facial expressions and hand movements to convey his message with greater force or more elaborately. This also gives the listener an idea about the speakers mood and attitude. 

The linguistic oriented approach to translation finds the very essence of translation is in the basics of the linguistic concept of translation, which is the fact that the process of translation is a language act in which a text from one language is substituted with an equivalent text from another, by making that substitution in accordance with the regulations of both language systems. This paper will deal with translation related issues through contrastive analyses between Macedonian and English, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. In the process of finding translation equivalence, there are instances of finding absolute equivalence, partial and no equivalence. This paper analyses such examples. In translating lexemes with no equivalent, which are culture specific, translators find themselves in a difficult position.
 
Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and  description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE  who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning. Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambigunity. While the study of  semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning.
 
The Role of Linguistic Factor in Translation
The linguistic oriented approach to translation finds the very essence of translation is in the basics of the linguistic concept of translation, which is the fact that the process of translation is a language act in which a text from one language is substituted with an equivalent text from another, by making that substitution in accordance with the regulations of both language systems. This paper will deal with translation related issues through contrastive analyses between Macedonian and English, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. In the process of finding translation equivalence, there are instances of finding absolute equivalence, partial and no equivalence. This paper analyses such examples. In translating lexemes with no equivalent, which are culture specific, translators find themselves in a difficult position

Non-linguistic 

non-linguistic is an actual or possible derivation from sentence, which is not associated with signs that have any original or primary intent of communication. It is a general term of art used to capture a number of different senses of the word "meaning", independently from its linguistic uses.

We need to understand “What is a Context” by delineating “non-linguistic visual context” from a language-processing perspective. Psycholinguistic research has shown that visual context can influence language processing through referential and lexico-semantic links. We review these findings, and discuss incremental visual context effects on language comprehension that emerged even without these links and even when visual context was irrelevant for the comprehension task. The reviewed evidence suggests our notion of non-linguistic visual context must be relatively broad and encompass language-world relationships that go beyond reference or lexico-semantic associations. At the same time, a strong utterance-mediated link seems necessary, predicting visual context effects closely time-locked to relevant words in the utterance and to dynamic motion in visual context.
 
Quality standards
There are a number of different quality standards that are applicable to the language services industry. Not all of the ones that cover translation services will also apply to interpretation services, as these tend to be assessed by separate quality standards.A separate quality certification standard is also used for machine translation, even if the translated material is reviewed and edited by a human.

In fact, the quality standard covering machine translation (ISO 18587) states that the person who post-edits any machine translated material needs to have the equivalent qualification to a translator covered by ISO 17100 quality standards.With machine translated material usually associated with a lower standard of translation quality, insisting on this high level of qualification for a human editor helps introduce some quality back into the process.

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Writer is Spanish and English Language Translation Intern at Modlingua, India's No1. certified translation and Language service providers based in New Delhi

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By Sahenur Begum

Quality Standards for translators and service

Some  translation agencies offer quality management standard certifications that establish a framework for how the agency manages its processes. These standards mean that the business follows a professional framework that’s independently assessed as being fit for purpose.Quality standards can help you assess the quality of the translation services on offer.But whilst these are helpful to understand that a translation service follows adequate procedures, it’s also important to work with your translation team to ensure a successful outcome to each project. Although a translator may follow all the right standards, they’ll also need to be well briefed to be able to deliver the right outcome for your translation project.

How to assess the quality of a translation service
Assessing the quality of a translation service isn’t just a case of determining the effectiveness of the language work. You’ll also want to consider elements of the service such as how well your account is managed, speed of delivery, ease of doing business and technical aspects including the way your information is handled. The latter is particularly important if sensitive materials are being handled, and you’ll want some assurances about data protection if this is the case. All these factors need to be considered alongside the quality of the translated material.Quality standard certifications help assess all of these business factors, giving you some peace of mind.                                                 It can be difficult to get visibility of a company’s IT infrastructure and processes, which is one reason why certification is useful. It means a third party assesses their provision to ensure it is fit for purpose and you can feel confident using the service. Certification will also cover the company’s data protection policies and processes.
TranslateMedia was most recently audited in July 2016 and we are certified as ISO 17100 compliant. We were previously assessed using the older EN 15038 certification standard, which has now been replaced. There are very few differences between the 15038 and the ISO 17100 – in fact, 15038 forms the basis of the more recent standard. Most of the differences are in terms of translator qualifications and record storage.Introduced in 2015, the ISO 17100 quality standard sets out certain requirements for the core processes and resources that a translation service needs to offer. It’s a way of ensuring that both the processes and resources delivered will meet the client’s specifications. As a recent qualification, it’s useful because it takes into account the latest data protection concerns.

A framework for excellence  Quality Standards

Quality standards help translation service providers as they set out a framework for excellence. TranslateMedia offers a huge range of services and languages which means that we work with many professional translators across multiple locations. Because our services have a broad scope, we need to work hard to ensure consistency of service across the business.Quality standard certification is helpful because it provides the framework we need to achieve this consistency.
From the point of view of our clients, we think it’s also helpful because it makes it easier for businesses seeking a translation service to choose between competing agencies. Not only does the quality standard certification indicate the level of service on offer but it also helps translation customers understand price differentials between different providers. If you drill down into the specifics of the different requirements to meet each quality standard, it also helps identify the quality focus of translation services that use different quality standards. Another way to look at this is that quality standards help clients understand what questions to ask a translation agency before they engage them.Some people in the industry take the view that relying too heavily on quality standards can give a false sense of security.Just because translation service standards are followed, this doesn’t necessarily guarantee high-quality translations. To really get to grips with translation quality it’s also important to focus on the long-term development of the translators you work with. This includes working with translators to provide feedback and continuously improve the translation process as part of an ongoing professional relationship.
It’s important to remember that you yourself play an important part in delivering high-quality translations. Quality standards only assess one partner in the two-party translation process. You can contribute to the successful translation outcome by working with your translation team to provide a clear brief, clarify any points they query, and always explain what you’re trying to achieve with the finished translated and what effect it should have on its audience.         
Ultimately, translated materials can only be judged on their effectiveness at communicating with their intended audience.That’s a difficult thing to measure. You can help get a better outcome by working alongside your translation team so that a better result is achieved through teamwork.

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Writer Sahenur Begum is Spanish and English Language Translation Intern at Modlingua, India  No1. certified translation and Language service providers based in New Delhi.

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By Hitesh Kohli

Translation-specific processes which many translators consider important on determining quality outcomes, this standard did not become widely accepted as a guarantee of quality in the industry. If writing literary text requires skill, then so does producing functional texts for working life. At times, a factual  text needs to be effectively translatable into other languages. In such cases, writing functional texts becomes even more challenging. Thus, if you know during the written stage that your text will be translated, you should definitely take that into account.The characteristics of a text that is functional as such or easily translatable are quite similar in many respects. However, criteria can also differ, especially when the text type in a question, such as an advertisement,  required creativity language use. In this article, we will discuss why the translatability of working life texts is significant. You will also learn what should be considered when returning a text that will be translated. On the other hand, the aim of a marketing text is to be sell the recipient products, services, thoughts and ideas. Each text is designed so that it content and expressions sport the achievement of the goal. When the communicating in one’s native language or another language one is familiar with, the writer, or the organization they represents, has the opportunity to ensure that the text meets its objectives. Then, even if the text is outsourced, the publisher can still check, specify, revise and fine-tune it down to the last tone and connotation. But when a text has to be written in a language in which one is not fluent, it is best to be let someone else take the lead. If a text is important in a to be return and translated, then conveying its message is also too important to be left to chance. First a fall, the outcome can be influent by carefully choosing the person who will translate the text. It is also advisable to take a moment to consider the translatability of the text during the writing stage. This way the translated text convey exactly the same message the original text intended to covey. Furthermore, it is also important to consider how effectively a text can be translated. This means, for instance, how quickly and fluently a text can be translated. These matters can also be affected during the writing stage.

How well or poorly a particular text will work when it is translated can be affected in various ways and at various levels:

  • Style and way in which the language is used (e.g. abstract vs. concrete)
  • Clarity and length of the clauses and sentences
  • Terms, concepts and other word choices
  • Paragraph structure and the general structure of the text
  • Layout and formatting
  • Attaching instructions and reference material generally speaking the rules of thumb less is more and the simper the better also apply to translatability. This is reflected in, for example, the fact that in certain text types the use of synonyms can give the text desirable to avid excess variation in a text which is destined for translation. The general instructions encouraging simplification are aimed at optimizing intelligibility and unambiguity. They do not, however, apply to matters outside the text, meaning instructions and reference material, which should not be skimped on. We will discuss further the factor affecting the translatability of a text in our next articales, so be sure to stay tuned. 

       Indian translation industry has a lot to learn from leader in terms of developing well organized translation management processes involving terminology management and standardization of terms, quality control standards, customer satisfaction and the use the technology,  including human assisted machine translation. Indian industry wants no more regulation and burden, but it has a culture of being economical. In translation industry, one cannot be aloof and s/he/it will be forced to apply market standards.

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By Jithin Raj CK

Quality according to business dictionary can be defined as the “totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.” In the case of translation, quality could be defined as the success of the translation in accurately capturing and conveying the information and the intent of the source document. Quality in the translation industry is comprised of four critical components: resource selection, quality assurance processes, industry certifications and industry experience. Understanding the important factors in each area will help you become a better translation buyer. A consumer oriented guideline was absent in translation industry and every other industry this made mismatches between what the client wanted and what the service provider delivered which created problems and the quality was questioned. This situation leads to creation of translation standard to projects and educates translation consumers and develops professionalism in translators. Since then there have been constant efforts by professionals, language service providers and organizations involved in promotion and implementation of quality standards in translation. The idea behind this was to prepare a reference guide that shall help the end user get a reasonable assurance of quality as per the stipulated standards.

The development of translation service (TSP) provider certifications is the result of industry growth and maturation. Certifications are a quick way to identify whether or not a particular TSP meets certain standards and has demonstrated compliance by virtue of the certification. The majority of European countries have their own standardization bodies like: DIN, AENOR etc. All of these bodies answer to standardization associations or institutes in the various European countries. Together, all of them make up the European Committee for Standardization (CEN).
 
Two Main Types of Translation Quality Standards
The International/national, general/industry-specific standards have been formulated, all with the goal of helping language service providers (LSPs) provide their customers with quality deliverables. All of these standards fall into two broad categories:
 
Process-oriented: These standards focus on establishing and maintaining a process of translation, review and approval that, when followed diligently by qualified professionals, will consistently result in translations that meet customer expectations.
For Example: ISO 17100:2015, it covers main aspects like the reorganization of tasks into three macro-processes: pre-production, production and post-production, and also the addition of the project manager’s profile and role as one of the key participants in translation project workflow.

Metrics-oriented: These standards focus on establishing actual quality metrics against which a translation can be measured and rated as high- or low-quality.
For Example: ATA Metric, which was developed by the American Translators Association to be used as an evaluation tool to test the quality of a translated text. A “strong” or “standard” score on the text correlates with an IRL Professional Performance Level 4 or 5, respectively.
Quality standards are applied to improve the efficiency and maintain the consistency with the work that is being produced. It comes handy in the long run, the standard helps the client at last but it defines the standard of the provider that how efficient are they in delivering the product. The best practices to maintain the long term relation with a client is first of all to create a glossary of words that are in the given project and send it to the client so that they could check and do the necessary and we have a reference point as per the standards of the client. There are several other points to be kept in mind when talking about quality in the linguistic aspect. Several aspects like wrong terms, syntactic errors, what needs to be omitted, subject verb agreement, misspelling, punctuation error, and other various mistakes. There are various other non-linguistic aspects as well. Mistakes such as forgotten and incomplete translations, corrupt characters, Inconsistent sentence count. Punctuations at the end of segments, space before punctuations, double spacing, double dots, double punctuation. Quotation marks, brackets and parenthesis. Other important aspect is of numbering, number values, number formats, measurement unit conversion, and digit to text conversion. Terminology is another crucial aspect, things like Project adherence, untranslatable words, tags etc. Being certified is not mandatory neither is any of the quality standards legal or they are not the law, but adhering to these principles determine the quality of the work which is being delivered to the client.
With its unique language culture and increasing demand of language industries, India is a highly potential market along with other countries like China and Latin America which are well established markets in language industry so developing and educating about the quality standards in translation would do wonders in this industry to both the translator and the client. Regarding these aspects India should take a look at the other well established countries who have gone much ahead in terms of developing well organized translation management process which comprises of terminology management and standardization of terms, quality control standards and customer satisfaction. For which the government, academic institutions, and translators association can collaborate to implement mechanisms that meets the market demands and expectations.

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By Maria Eugenia Padron

It seems to be a common misconception in the general population that people that know two languages are translators automatically. This couldn’t be further away from the truth. To become a quality translator, you need not only to know 2 different languages really well, but you need many skills on top of that. You need to be able to detect and interpret the context of the text and its meaning in different ways to be able to translate the text’s meaning accurately and in a relevant manner for the audience that’ll be reading the translated text. Dialects and register in language are to be considered, as well as social context. Differences in phonetics might even be considered if there’s a pun or rhyme intended in the original text.

So, how are we able to keep a quality check in translators? Some clients may rely in the accreditation of the translator’s studies. If she or he has a diploma in translation, that makes the clients trust in that the translator has the skills and manages the techniques required to create quality translations.

However, with the globalization of the world increasing, the demand for translators is on a rise. Also, the opportunity for translators to become freelance/independent amidst the changing job market of the 20th century has increased the offer of translators as well. To keep up with this market, many bilingual or multilingual people have started to become translators through experience, independent studies, or simply have studied translation but don’t know how to apply what they’ve learned in school or didn’t receive appropriate education on the field.

Translation being a difficult craft, with all the different techniques, theories, methods, and tools that exist for it, along with the ambiguity and flexibility language seems to show frequently, has made it necessary for many governments, organizations and businesses to have a standard way of measuring the quality of a translator’s services.

This is why apart from having examinations and qualifications, translators might need to check international or local translation quality standards, depending on where they’re working at.

According to Morning Translations, the most recognized standard for translators in the world is the ISO 9001 standard. It provides guidelines and a framework to evaluate the consistency of a translator’s performance at a variety of levels, customer satisfaction, staff motivation and improvement.

Another standard is EN 15038, which was created in 2006 by the European Committee for Standardization. It defines requirements for the personnel, technical resources, quality control, client contract parameters, as well as management methods and project management of the translator’s services. This standard is the one used by European countries, and it inspired the standard that was created and is employed in Canada, CGSB-131.10.

EN 15038 was recently updated in 2015 to a new standard to be used in Europe called ISO 17100:2015. Outside of the European Union and Canada, most countries rely on the ISO standards previously mentioned.

The LISA Scorecard is another standard that’s widely in use, despite that the Localization Industry Standards Association has ceased to be active and functioning. It relies in a grading system, and for a translation to pass it, it needs a grade of 99%.

The ATA metric was developed in the US by the American Translators Association also relies in a grading system, but it works differently. Instead of having a grade based on points, it’s based on performance levels. So it’s possible for a translation to pass the quality standards with different performance levels, such as strong or standard.

Apart from all these different quality standards, there are some that have been specifically created for a specific purpose, such as for medical translations. Translators have to keep this in mind, as well as that the translation standard to be used might not vary only by country, but also by government, business, institution or organization.

All translators need to keep up to date with all the laws and standards that are relevant for their job. This will set their professionalism and trustworthiness will be displayed, so as to get clients that look to hire such translators because they know their translation is a trustworthy, quality translation which is worth the money they’ll pay for the translating services that’ll leave then satisfied and require a fair pay that’s relevant to the quality of the translator’s services.

Therefore, translators need to constantly read new standards and changes made to them, keep informed through journals or newsletters for translators, and need to thoroughly explore the standards that are the most relevant. For example, a medical translator might not focus so much on the ISO standards as in learning about the standards the medical association she or he works for requires.

This is just another aspect through which it’s visible how a translator never stops learning and is in need of constant and permanent improvement. New research, technology and techniques appear constantly, and it's part of a translator’s job to keep informed and learn about them to maintain their services reliable.

By Maria Eugenia Padron - Summer 2017 Intern

Source: https://www.morningtrans.com/translation-quality-standards-what-do-they-mean/

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By Beti Levensteinas

Globalization helped in the rapid growth of translation and localization activities. However, there has been a mismatch of expectations, assumptions and goals between those who request a translation and those supplying a translation, affecting, thus, project quality. In view of that, national standards were developed in different parts of the world. Concerted efforts were endeavored to implement quality standards and maintain consistency in translations in the whole world.

Generally, those standards are not legally binding, they are just recommendations, but people are expected to follow them. They are connected with to management, procedures, project and they aim at increasing translation efficiency and improving translation processes. Those standards aim at teaching translators to improve their own processes, but it takes time for translators to improve, they go up various steps to improve their efficiency. 

There are basic standards which include, without limitation, information processing, information and documentation, terminological principles and methods. There are also subject standards, such as product standards, testing standards, process standards, service standards to interface standards and data standards. One standard may be used in a field at an office, for a client at an office, at one office as a whole, at various offices, at a region, in a country etc. 

Standardized definition of quality applied to translation refers to correct form and content expected from customer. Many countries have their own standards.
Languages lexicon, spelling and grammar are highly prescribed. And languages evolve along time and there is an ever increasing number of subject fields. Translation is a fast changing market environment. Technology evolves at a tremendous speed. More specialization is required and new qualifications have to be acquired. Customer’s requirements and expectations also change fast.

There’s a variation of terms from country to country and standards are used to try to apply only one term worldwide. Quality assurance is an added process that takes time to complete, since it requires more personnel to proofread, organize translation memories etc.There is also a lot of non-linguistics issues at stake in translation.Quality standards are applied to improve efficiency, speed up work, maintain consistency, then there’s no reason to increase cost charged from customers since translator is helping himself/herself, rather than the client.

It should be identified problem points in translation process and it should be improves quality as well as cost by reducing steps and additional work hours.
Translators/Translation agencies should prepare a list of key words and submit it to the customer for checking terminology so that translators/translation agencies can use that glossary as a protection, since customer’s approval is like a contract.

Some of standards are based on wrong terms, syntactic errors, omission, word structure or agreement errors, misspelling, punctuation error, miscellaneous errors (those are connected with linguistics).

However, they can also be based on nonlinguistic aspects, such as segment-level check: missing and incomplete translation, corrupt characters, inconsistent sentence count, source and target inconsistency, punctuation at the end of segments, spaces before punctuation, double spacing, double dots, double punctuation, quotation marks, brackets and parentheses, number values, number formatting, measurement unit conversion, digit to text conversion, terminology, project glossaries adherence, identical untranslatable, tags, identical tags.

There is no agreement on a universal concept of quality, one agency may say it is a mix between creative and normative, but different areas have different requirements, in order to use a particular product.

Some countries use standards as a basis for certification, while others do not do so. In U.S. translation standard, client provides specification, a contract is entered into, and then production starts, there’s a project manager, a translator, a proofreader and after proofreading, translation is submitted to client, in case of feedback, translation is improved and given back to client. LISA guide has linguistic and nonlinguistic standards that apply penalties to a translation. In ISO 17100:2015, there is cooperation between clients and translators/contractors, it is required a certification of competence in translation awarded by a relevant governmental agency. DIN 2345 – 1998, the German standard, focuses more on text. 

The large amount of standards causes confusion. There’s a need to harmonize the definitions to be adapted universally by all national standards. Conceptual agreement must exist at the definition level, scope, procedures and aims. Translation quality must include localization quality and must be applied from the uniform definition of quality set forth in ISO. Evaluation parameters have to be described as accurately as possible. Certification could be granted to individuals, companies or processes. The use of technology for translations has to be accurately described as it is in existing standards. Copyright specification and rules should be clearly stated. Services different from translation should be determined, classified and described as clearly as possible.

Indian translation industry has a lot to learn from leaders in terms of developing well organized translation management processes involving terminology management and standardization of terms, quality control standards, customer satisfaction and the use of technology, including human assisted machine translation. Indian industry wants no more regulation and burden, but it has a culture of being economical. In translation industry, one cannot be aloof and s/he/it will be forced to apply market standards.

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img 1555q 2By Letícia Pasqualotto
 
Originally, quality standards were developed for manufacturing business, most related to industrial production. The creation of standardized machinery would increase the productivity, avoiding errors and maintaining a specific line of design for the product. That way, saving time and money for the clients and guaranteeing a higher level of quality.
With globalization and its enormous technological advances, which are increasing every year exponentially, this expression is recently being related to the translation business. We experienced a shift in the customer’s requirements and expectations in relation to the translation service. Translators are required to work more efficiently and standardized not only in the linguistic and terminological field but also in the translation company’s organization.
 
However, standardizing companies that deals with different linguistic pairs is a very subjective process since each country has its own standardization organization in order to deal with processes and services. Therefore, translation companies are applying the International Standardization Organization. The ISO 9001 handles how to treat your employees and organize them accordingly to the client’s necessity. An ISO system takes into account the client experience as much as the industry expectations, using this system the company can better identify problems regarding its management and increase efficiency and productivity lowering the costs for both clients and service providers.  
 
Now, specifically for the translation services providers, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) published the EN: 15038, which is the European equivalent of ISO. It is a deeply thorough standard, which is divided in three major sections. The first one being basic requirements, this section summarizes the competences that is required for the translator, as in the technological and communication equipment necessary for the use of each type of job (technical, commercial, legal translation).
 
In the sequence, we have the standard steps for the client and translation service provider (TSP) relationship. The consultation of the client with the TSP and viability of the project, quotation rules, and the agreement of both parts regarding what will be done and who will do it, and handling the client information, meaning the glossaries and translation memories handed over by the client and that the translator is required to use for determined project. The third section is subdivided in three parts, the Project Management part that deals with the properly documented procedures and agreements when handling all translation process involved in a project. The Preparation for the job which include all the necessary things to start the project such as project registration, project assignment, technical resources, pre-translating process, source text analysis, terminology work and the style guide. Finally, the translation itself with the following steps: checking, revision, review, proofreading and final verification.

All of these processes can be useful for the translation business; however, it is more suitable for a specific area of translation. Like legal translations, regarding passport issues, immigration issues, visa issues, or commercial and technical translations that have a more specific terminology as these areas deals with documents that are already standardized in each country by their own rules. By standardizing an industry that deals with foreign matters, even though these areas require a specific terminology, we have to be careful not to limit the linguistic aspects and end up stagnating the language.
 
Despite being useful for the translation business, the quality standards systems proved effective only to translation companies, the freelance business still suffers with some of the meticulous processes of the EN: 15038. For translators working from home it would be impossible to complete some of the client – professional “requirements”. Besides, along with the ISO 9001, these two systems seems more focused on the quality management of the company instead of the translation itself, by prioritizing the relationship with clients and the organization features of translation projects.
 
The systems cited have a clear view of the importance of the quality control in each step of the production process, with supervisions and regular contact with clients. Nonetheless, it cannot forget the essentials for the translation quality such as translation tools and research through various informational sources. It is understandable that these systems have yet a long way to improve in order to supply a full quality standard for the translation industry.
 
In the end, the translation companies willing to adapt to the use of quality standards systems are more likely to have a more functional quality management than those who do not, and that along with freelancers would tend to have a weaker margin of clientele. Managing the company to keep the best interest of the client and find the best translator for the kind of job the customer needs, showing them that it is a serious and respected company. Doing so increases the chance to retaining clients and having a long and continuous relationship with them hence the need for the adaptation of the translation industry into a networking business. Yet it does not guarantee a high-level quality translation.
 
 
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By Hitesh Kohli

The field of linguistics is extremely diverse, intersecting with many areas such as anthropology, computer science, engineering, foreign language study, neurology, philosophy, psychology, sociology. As a result, a degree in linguistics can provide the foundation for a wide range of jobs and careers AS a student of linguistics you will become familiar with many different languages and cultures and, as a result, also develop cross- cultural skills. Each of these skills are useful in many careers that may not otherwise seen related to linguistics. Marketing is one such area where a person from any field can be engaged. Companies such as lexicon branding, Strategic name development, nomen, and Igor use linguistic to create brand or product names, and test how to these work across different languages. Linguists can also work on market research, international marketing, and other aspects of corporate communications.   

Translating is a profession that requires much more than just skill in order to gain employment. To be recognized in a field that is potentially open to any fluently bilingual person, you more often than not have to go the extra mile in order to get ahead. This is when networking becomes a translator’s best friend as the possibilities it opens up are indeed, endless. Social media has made networking, for any purpose, much more easy and effortless than the practices of the dark ages of a decade ago. Promoting yourself online isn’t just an added bonus when it comes to finding work, it is now practically essential. Linkedin and facebook are creating enormous opportunities for professionals to promote themselves; these are two platforms that translators especially need to take advantage of. If you work as a translator then you have the potential for employment across the globe. You have a skill that could be required by anyone from anywhere, depending on their needs. Connecting with these people via the internet will ensure that  your expertise in language is accessible to those who require it. As a translator, your  online presence needs to grow in order for your employment opportunities to expand.  One of the best ways to get started when it comes to networking as a translator is to set yourself up with a website. This might sound obvious to most but it isn’t a tool that everybody is using. A website is a great way to have all of the relevant information about yourself and your services in one place. You can even show examples of your work and talk about your qualifications and experience. A website is also a great place to have references from other people who have previously assigned you to complete translation work.
 
A collaboration is a purposeful relationship in which all parties strategically choose to cooperate in order to achieve shared or overlapping objectives. In collaborative leadership: developing effective partnerships for communities and schools, Rubin explain because of its voluntary nature, the success of a collaboration depends on one or more collaborative leader’s ability to build and maintain these relationship. Collaboration is very similar to, but more closely aligned than, cooperation. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. Teams that work collaboratively can obtain greater resources, recognition and reward when facing competition for finite resources.

Entrepreneurship is about starting new business. Some people say that you are born an entrepreneur and that it cannot be taught. Many entrepreneurs would argue that to a certain extant this may be true, but many skills, which are needed for success, can most defiantly be learned.

Ultimately, entrepreneur training is designed to teach you the skills and knowledge that you need to know before embarking on a new business venture. While the program may not guarantee success, you should be able to avoid many of fitfalls awaiting your less well trained and vigilant contemporaries training initially as a cost in terms of time and money. Your investment in your education should reward   you in the future. The definition of entrepreneur is somebody who can see an opportunity and exploit. Even during times of economic depressions, real entrepreneur will always find a use for their skills.
 

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