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sahenurGlobalization, internationalization and translation

Globalization and internationalization are terms that have become very commonplace these days because of increasing pace of communication and exponential growth of means of transport leading to very high levels of cooperation and trade between countries. Many people tend to use these terms interchangeably thinking them to be synonymous. However, there are differences that will be highlighted in this article.


Globalization is a term that is used to refer to a process of assimilation of a country’s policies with the policies that are accepted universally across the world. Worldview is a phrase that is commonly applied to the way of thinking and practice that is seen cutting across cultures and civilizations. It is natural for different cultures to have different viewpoints and practices. However, increasing levels of interactions with new and fast modes of transportation created conditions where peoples and countries started to have similarities in their ways of thinking and behaving. This meant that the world started to shrink in terms of easy reach and transport. The emergence of internet hastened the process of globalization during the 90’s and the dawn of the 21st century has brought about a level of uniformity, which was unthinkable even half a century ago. Setting up of world bodies devising rules and regulations for member states has also given pace to the process of globalization. Today we tend to think of global warming, global economy, and global issues that affect more and less entire population of the world rather than specific locations and countries.


Internationalization is a word that is used more in terms of creating software and other products so as to make them amenable to local cultures and languages than anything else. Internationalization also refers to conducting economic activities that involve more than one’s own country. Raking up an issue or a dispute to take it to an international forum is another way to internationalize an issue. Internationalization has nothing to do with economic reforms in a country that lead to integration with the policies of the rest of the world. Taking one’s business outside the boundaries of one’s country is another instance of internationalization.

Internationalization and Globalization both are important for a translator

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Globalization is the tendency of investment funds and businesses to move beyond domestic and national marketsto other markets around the globe, thereby increasing the interconnection of the world. Globalization had the effect of markedly increasing international trade and cultural exchange. Globalization is used to explain the recent integration of domestic economies, industries, cultures and government policies around the world. This integration has occurred through increases in the technological capabilities and efficiency of world trade, communication and transportation. Primarily, globalization refers to the economic integration of the global markets, but it is also used to describe the socio-cultural integration that has been brought on by the rise of the Internet.


Internationalization is the process in which the application is designed in such a way that it can support any language, date-time, currency or any other value without making any modification in the code base. So it means you are coding in such a way that when you need to support any new language by providing Resource files or different locale it works automatically with that Internationalization is a design process that ensures a product can be adapted to various languages and regions without requiring engineering changes to the source code. Think of internationalization as readiness for localization. Internationalization can save significant expense, time, and headaches for everyone involved. Sometimes  internationalization evolved from a growing demand for multilingual products and applications.

localization is the process of adapting a product or content to a specific locale or market. Translation is only one of several elements of the localization process. In addition to translation, the localization process may also include:
Adapting graphics to target markets
  • Modifying content to suit the tastes and consumption habits of other markets
  • Adapting design and layout to properly display translated text
  • Converting to local requirements (such as currencies and units of measure)
  • Using proper local formats for dates, addresses, and phone number
Globalization Internationalization Localization all three are important for business throughout the world but Localization is very important for translator because the aim of localization is to give a product the look and feel of having been created specifically for a target market, no matter their language, culture, or location.
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By Rupam Roli

Nowadays content writing has become a strategy which helps in boosting of the search engine rankings and online presence. Content writing has become an important part of the online marketing. In Content writing people write about their business, product and services. The content should be in such a way that the services or the product can get in front of as many people as possible. It creates awareness among the people and if the content is simple, clear and to the point then it also brings interest of the people in the business, the services or the products.

And awareness and interest these two are very important factor of AIDA Model for online marketing. AIDA Model comprises of four factors. The first one is A for awareness (it is the initial stage where awareness is created about the product or the services). Then comes the second I for interest (in this after the awareness, people discuss about the services and the products). Third one is D for desire (in this the messages are communicated through the use of social media and email marketing). And the last one is A for action (in this people interact with the website).

Content writing has a positive impact on purchasing decisions. Companies with active blog and rich content on average receive more tweet and more Facebook likes. Pages with a lot of high quality content are ranked highly in search. The average page that ranks on the first page of Google has between 2032 words and 2494 words. So we can see that content writing and online marketing both are linked to each other. And to reach the people of different countries, and who speaks different language, we need translator for different language. This helps a lot in online marketing. Because online marketing is not only for a certain region. Its main aim is to reach so many people across the world and this can only be done through translation of the blog or the content. So that they can understand the content or the blog in a better way. And the product and services can reach the people across the world without any language barrier. So content writing, online marketing and translation in many languages all these three are linked to each other. For online marketing, content writing is very important. Till now I have not used my language skills in these areas. But as I am working as an intern in Modlingua, I am learning about all these and hopefully in future I will use my language skills in this area.

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By Mohd Kashif

Google search is Indeed very important today, as it is the most widely used search engine in the world, and is very simple to use. Google search gives user a very friendly internet scenario, the results are plain and simple, the amount of data hosted by google is certainly more than any other search engine. Google also owns Youtube, Gmail, Picasso, Android, Google chrome, Cloud, etc which gives user multi optional platform to surf the web and which is part of google so any data related to these media hubs is also shown in the searches we made. Since, these hubs like youtube, google maps and docs are also keeping a lot of data intact which can preferably be shown to us when we make a search on the google search bar. Google help us to make the most optimised searches on the internet with its enhanced web developing algorithms. 
Top results in google searches is important as it makes the website more organic in google than any other site. Two Features of Google Search namely Search Engine Marketing and Search Engine Optimization which can be simply explained.

You buy ads on Google search engine result page. You pay Google for your visitors click on your ads. The cost of the ads is determined by the competition of the keywords that you have targeted. 

You optimise your website to get it rank on Google Search engine result page. You don't need to pay Google. You can do this yourself for Free, or pay a Search Marketing Agency  firm to do it for you. 

These two features are used to put your desired website on the top result, google is very much focused on getting the more organic data for their users so your website or blog demands to be up to date and managed perfectly. 

“Never impose your language on people you wish to reach.” – Abbie Hoffman

This quote is a perfect example to put up my point on the third part of the question. More than half of all Google search are not conducted in English , we can simply conclude the more languages one knows, the more you are into the web. Knowing more than one language can benefit you by giving searches and results in other languages, opening you to more information. If you run a blog or a website being multilingual, you can get more audience just by having your blog and website in other languages, that will help you reach develop your website well and get a lot of people from other languages background rather than just English speaking group of people. For instance, I can take advantages of knowing French, English and Hindi and I can get more audience using these three languages for my blog. 

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1. Globalization
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations.it includes products, ideas, and other aspects of culture
- globalisation has had an enormous impact on translators' lives and work,
- translation is becoming a more and more important tool to enhance understanding between cultures,
- cultures that readers are traditionally not familiar with have become more familiar as a result of globalisation,
- the practice of foreignising or exoticizing translation has changed as a result of globalisation.

 2. Localisation

localisation refers to the actual adaptation of the product for a specific market. The localization phase involves, among other things, the four issues LISA describes as linguisticphysicalbusiness and cultural, and technical issues.

The localization process might include adapting graphics; adopting local currencies; using proper format for date and time, addresses, and phone numbers applicable to the location; the choices of colours; and many other details, including rethinking the physical structure of a product. All these changes aim to recognise local sensitivities, avoid conflict with local culture, customs, common habits, and enter the local market by merging into its needs and desires. For example, localization aims to offer country-specific websites of the same company or different editions of a book depending on where it is published.


internationalization is planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be localized for specific languages and cultures.This process requires a combination of both international and technical expertise, and generally involves both deploying new systems and reengineering existing ones. Once the internationalized platform is in place, rollouts in new countries or cultures should be significantly more cost efficient, timely and market effective.                  

-Creating illustrations for documents in which the text can easily be changed to another language and allowing expansion room for this purpose
-Allowing space in user interfaces (for example, hardware labels, help pages, and online menus) for translation into languages that require more space
-creating print or web site graphic images so that their text labels can be translated inexpensively
-Leaving enough space in a brochure to drop in different length languages
-Separating the language elements from the graphic elements, or abstracting content from markup in a web application and software

Globalization, takes major role in transaltion because globalzation playes mddle place in between localisation and internationalzation like if we want trade something from local market to international market we need globlization which most important element in trading if we are not allowed to trade between country then we dont have international market like in language transation we required globalization. professional knowledge of these processes benefit me alot like my language pair added in this and help ,me in every field like product designing or product localisation. 
Language familyLanguage tagLanguage variant
Bangla bn-BD Bangla (Bangladesh)
bn-IN Bangla (India)
Chinese zh-CN Mainland China, simplified characters
zh-TW Taiwan, traditional characters
zh-HK Hong Kong, traditional characters
English en-GB British English
en-US American English
en-CA Canadian English
en-IN Indian English
Portuguese pt-PT European Portuguese (as written and spoken in Portugal)
pt-BR Brazilian Portuguese
Spanish es-ES Castilian Spanish (as spoken in Central-Northern Spain)
es-MX Mexican Spanish
es-AR Argentine Spanish
es-CO Colombian Spanish
es-CL Chilean Spanish
Tamil ta-IN Indian Tamil
ta-LK Sri Lankan Tamil

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By Muskan Mehta

The ability to source talent/material from anywhere in the world is to be able to manufacture anywhere in the world and then be able to sell anywhere in the world, with minimal overheads is what globalisation is. It is facilitated by technology (communications, transportation), needs (for goods and services), compulsions(social, economic, political) and aspirations (education, quality of life, freedom).

It describes increasing connectivity between individuals, and regions, throughout the world.
Localization is much more than just direct translation. It is about carefully refining and adapting content to resonate with a culture and to meet local peculiarities. During the localization process, the product is adapted to the needs and customs of the target market etc. it is a higher standard of translation. It means not only to translate the content, but also to tailor the translation to specific market.
Internationalization is like if you internationalize, you design or develop your content, application, specification, and so on, in a way that ensures it will work well for, or can be easily adapted for, users from any culture, region, or language.

Translation is merely understanding something and letting others understand it. You can’t translate a text if you don’t understand it, else you will make a mistake in meanings, and translate it wrong, leading to the misunderstanding of others. Surely, you should be good at both languages, source and target, in order to translate well. Translation brings cultured closer.

Yes, there’s a massive role of translator in these processes.  A translation takes years of study and practice to master. To work with an understanding of the text, context and audience and successfully communicate this understanding in a second language is the main goal of a translator. To be successful in that particular field, he or she needs to do right amount of research and also need to see cultural aspects of that.
These localization and internationalization processes act as a translation strategies. If a translator assimilates into target audience and culture, he or she would create lot of changes but when a translator so to say bring alienation effect, then he or she is going to introduce a new , foreign culture to its new audience which would be interesting enough for a target audience.

As far as my professional knowledge with my translation skills is concerned, I have not done much into this field but I have analyzed original and translated work a lot.

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By Paula Sifredi

When it comes to languages, there are many things one can turn to. Either you are familiar only with your native tongue, or multilingual, knowing the concepts of grammar and coherence in each language it's not an easy task.

When you study a language you definitely have to study its grammar and vocabulary but knowing the local dialects and ways of speaking are also of help, even if they're not grammatically correct.

Three of the main areas in which you could specialize yourself are content writing, online marketing, and translation. Some people may think these three areas are related and some may think they are the same, but they are not. They are related on a deep level. All of them are written texts which use one or more languages. But each has a different aim. As multilinguist, you can embark into the three, but you should recognize the differences before you make a huge mistake.

Content writing:  This area focuses on the writing texts related to a specific subject, but with the main aim to inform, entertain or any other purposes not related to commerce. When you work in content writing, there's a LOT you need to know, not just a language. Being multilingual only means that you can write content in all the languages you are fluent in, but sometimes that's not enough. For content writing, you have to know a lot of vocabulary, specific to the certain subject you are currently writing about. This said, you probably need to know huge amounts of vocabulary about every single subject on the planet if you want to write content about several things. If you do not, you'll have to restrain yourself to your field of expertise. Also, you will have to have a perfect grammar and coherent knowledge, as this type of text is specifically to inform and teach so it has to be perfectly readable. If you do not have all the vocabulary knowledge needed, you can always do research, but that will take you twice the time.

Online marketing: This area focuses on commerce. You NEED to sell a product or service to someone. So you can make the text informative, but that's not the aim of the text. The main goal is to sell, so obviously, you need sales and marketing knowledge. Of course, in this type of text, the language related issue is besides being able to write in more than language, is to be able to redirect the text towards the right audience. So, in this case, instead of vocabulary, you need to know a lot about the cultures and customs of the countries your language skills come from, as you will have to not only write in their language for them to get it but call their attention for them to buy it. In this case, you can also investigate, but that does not compare to being familiar with a country's culture and customs.

Translation: This area focuses on any type of writing, including the two types above, the main difference is that instead of you writing original content in any language, you "copy and adapt" the text that is in one language, to another. Of course, in this area, you need everything you needed for both of the previous ones, as you will be covering every type of subject, including commerce, and sometimes you need to adapt the text to comply the target audience's culture. 

I have only worked with translation so far, but as related as these areas seem to be, I might jump into the other two.

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By Ana Teresa Gaspar
GILT is an acronym for Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, and Translation. Although these terms are often misused or employed as synonyms, they differ among themselves and no clear consensus exists over the meaning of these processes in the language services and products industry. The definition of each one of these terms takes on special importance due to this lack of consensus about their basic concepts. They are all processes required to produce global products or services.

In the linguistic sense, these processes can be defined as follows: Globalization can be associated with the process of tailoring a product, company or service to suit language and cultural conventions as well as business requirements for worldwide distribution. Internationalization is related to changes in the language of a product without altering its appearance or functionality, preparing such product to be easily adaptable for multiple locales. Localization is regarded as the adaptation of a product to local market needs of a given region according to content, cultural, technical and/or linguistic specifications so that it seems natural, that is, developed within the given culture. Translation renders a message from a specific source language into a target language.

Based on these definitions, we can note that internationalization and localization are part of the globalization process. Localization, the fast growing area of translation industry, is not just a linguistic process, besides translating language content, localization may but is not limited to adapting material regarding icons, colors, graphics, size and shape, date and time formats, systems of units, and currencies. Translation can be seen as the foundation, or the first steps for these three aforementioned processes, and is essential for a product be accepted internationally. It thus becomes clear that translators are the major players of the GILT industry.

It is not news that translators help to spread knowledge and information all over the world. They play an important role and find a place in the global economy providing optimal solutions and ensuring that linguistic and cultural aspects are respected. Therefore, they guarantee that the costumers have access to accurate information or that the target audience is not offended.

In our multilingual world, translators are the key to overcoming the obstacles to the full globalization. With the professional knowledge of the GILT processes upgraded in my internship at Modlingua allied to my experience in English <> Brazilian Portuguese translation, I can help to make products and services visible to the international public.
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By Martín Rost

Even before 1492, the year Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas, European countries tried to develop their commercial markets by expanding beyond their borders. Back then, perhaps having strong ships, a good route and a linguist was enough to trade in foreign lands. In a globalized world like ours, companies try to expand beyond their borders. That is the way they can establish economical and brand dominance over their competitors, just like it happened over 500 years ago. Naturally these processes have been professionalized over time and currently things are different. For a company to sell a specific product, it has to target the areas they think will be more profitable, plan accordingly and execute those plans better and faster than competitors.

It is here where translators come to take a big role. There are products that are international, mobile phones for example, companies can offer that same product worldwide. Marketing strategies, in most cases, have to be translated into different languages or adapted so that they are understood almost everywhere in the world. This process is called internationalization. Even in Spanish-speaking countries you may find slogans in English, therefore standardizing marketing throughout the world. This is a resource that only the most massive companies can use. Less known companies, or new companies, must have their marketing campaigns translated, especially if their product is new or difficult to understand.
If an international sport equipment brand decided to offer a new cricket bat, they could only offer it in a certain group of countries as not all the world plays cricket. This may probably be spread in English speaking countries only, using the globalization strategy: adapting the campaign for different sets of cultures. Later on, the company may decide to adapt their campaign to a specific country or culture, in order to improve their sales in particular market. This process is called localization. Linguists are involved in each of these projects, it would be difficult to succeed in a country if you do not speak the language and try to sell your products.

Linguists provide their clients reliability. It would be hard for a company to sell a product if its website is poorly translated or their slogan is confusing to the local culture. Translators must be ready to offer companies the service the need to succeed, in order to obtain good profits and benefits over competitors. This can only be achieved by learning about internationalization, globalization, localization and translation.

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In my previous article, I had established that translators play a major role in building an amicable relationship in society as well as countries with the simple tools of language translation and accordingly they prove to be the “noble world leaders and global peace officers”.
The use of their multilingual ability; conveying the dialogues and statements of involved parties, producing an output towards maximizing the global perception of working in the same direction, even while following different ideas, places them in a very important position, albeit in hindsight; often neglected as pushovers against the strange and whimsical “discoverers and inventors” of the society. Following are some technical aspects of their existence that make them all too important and indispensable.  
CONTENT WRITING – As the term is self-explanatory, meaning the creation of content to read – preach, explain, educate or simply for the sake of cluttering the web servers, it also means to produce compiled data after considerable research into a particular phenomenon or an event. People choose to write articles, essays and blogs on various topics ranging from sports to entertainment, religion to war, peace to politics and more, all of which brings crystal clear understanding to the readers, broadens their horizons to knowledge perception, and traditionally, forms a niche of followers of the supposed author on web stations.

ONLINE MARKETING – It signifies the promotion of products and services using the internet, holding a difference from traditional “door-to-door marketing” in the act of using the internet and its immense possibilities as a promotional platform reaching a domain of bigger audience and consumers. The use of internet has created a fierce level of competition, increasing the importance of professional marketing experts and their laudable talent to come up with new “strategies and gimmicks” to popularize a particular merchandise has made them the forerunners of marketing evolution.

TRANSLATION – Producing a given text into the target language without losing the essence of the source language in the process. Technically, it seems that any polyglot with a fine presence of talent will be quite adept in such process, but it is not as simple as it sounds. Translation not only requires knowledge of languages at both ends, but it also takes into account the complexities of context, culture, and traditions, market image and most importantly the personality of the translator himself.
RELATIONSHIP (Content Writing-Online Marketing-Translation)
The art of content writing makes particular topics such as political strife, poverty, health and hygiene, education, entertainment gossip, motivational anecdotes etc. available to the masses and it also provides information on the abstract department of feelings of love-hate, sadness-depression and life-death; relating to personal experiences in which case, people tend to follow one particular author for their ingenuity. The transmission of knowledge and information happens from reading and researching books, commentaries, and online information; the absence of which would make learning an unfinished job. Consequently, the online marketing of content is proven a big help in increasing its popularity and making it readily available to consumers and finally, the translation of that online content in different foreign languages make it available to a much larger community of readers. This way one set of content is able to bind people of diversity with a single thread of language, making them aware of the history, sociology and other living aspects of their language counterparts in some distant area of this world.
Hence, these 3 processes work in a closely knit circle of continuous progression as the data created by content writers undergoes marketing and then changes form by the grace of translators, culminating into a “new form of content in a different language”, completing the ever prosperous circle of online knowledge and information, connecting and building bridges in order.
The opportunity provided by Modlingua, bringing language enthusiasts from different countries; skilled in their art and thriving to improve yet, together as a social platform for the exchange of knowledge and work upon skills like content writing, business development, entrepreneurship etc. has proven bountiful in its sense of language adventure. The task of writing our own articles on topics of great practical importance, not only pushes us to ponder over them but also brushes our ability to summarize the previously read content into a whole new form. I believe, the agenda of Modlingua will consequently make us a far better linguist than earlier and will also decorate us with newfound abilities in the process.    

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