LINGUISTIC AND NON LINGUISTIC ASPECTS IN TRANSLATION

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By Mahenur Alam

LINGUISTIC AND NON LINGUISTIC ASPECTS IN TRANSLATION

As language may not always be used to communicate, so also communication may be possible without necessarily using spoken language. For example sign language. Deaf and dumb people have their own non-linguistic code (gestures and hands signs) to express themselves or to communicate with one another. The linguistic key is the tone, manner or spirit in which an act is performed. Linguistic communication differs from non-linguistic communication. For communicating linguistically, the whole language is available. Sometimes one can communicate in even more than one language, whereas the choices are limited for a non-linguistic communicator, such as, facial expressions, signs and gestures, movements of hands etc. An interesting point here is that even linguistic communication is accompanied by certain elements of non-linguistic communication. While talking a speaker often uses facial expressions and hand movements to convey his message with greater force or more elaborately. This also gives the listener an idea about the speakers mood and attitude. 

The linguistic oriented approach to translation finds the very essence of translation is in the basics of the linguistic concept of translation, which is the fact that the process of translation is a language act in which a text from one language is substituted with an equivalent text from another, by making that substitution in accordance with the regulations of both language systems. This paper will deal with translation related issues through contrastive analyses between Macedonian and English, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. In the process of finding translation equivalence, there are instances of finding absolute equivalence, partial and no equivalence. This paper analyses such examples. In translating lexemes with no equivalent, which are culture specific, translators find themselves in a difficult position.
 
Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and  description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE  who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning. Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambigunity. While the study of  semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning.
 
The Role of Linguistic Factor in Translation
The linguistic oriented approach to translation finds the very essence of translation is in the basics of the linguistic concept of translation, which is the fact that the process of translation is a language act in which a text from one language is substituted with an equivalent text from another, by making that substitution in accordance with the regulations of both language systems. This paper will deal with translation related issues through contrastive analyses between Macedonian and English, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. In the process of finding translation equivalence, there are instances of finding absolute equivalence, partial and no equivalence. This paper analyses such examples. In translating lexemes with no equivalent, which are culture specific, translators find themselves in a difficult position

Non-linguistic 

non-linguistic is an actual or possible derivation from sentence, which is not associated with signs that have any original or primary intent of communication. It is a general term of art used to capture a number of different senses of the word "meaning", independently from its linguistic uses.

We need to understand “What is a Context” by delineating “non-linguistic visual context” from a language-processing perspective. Psycholinguistic research has shown that visual context can influence language processing through referential and lexico-semantic links. We review these findings, and discuss incremental visual context effects on language comprehension that emerged even without these links and even when visual context was irrelevant for the comprehension task. The reviewed evidence suggests our notion of non-linguistic visual context must be relatively broad and encompass language-world relationships that go beyond reference or lexico-semantic associations. At the same time, a strong utterance-mediated link seems necessary, predicting visual context effects closely time-locked to relevant words in the utterance and to dynamic motion in visual context.
 
Quality standards
There are a number of different quality standards that are applicable to the language services industry. Not all of the ones that cover translation services will also apply to interpretation services, as these tend to be assessed by separate quality standards.A separate quality certification standard is also used for machine translation, even if the translated material is reviewed and edited by a human.

In fact, the quality standard covering machine translation (ISO 18587) states that the person who post-edits any machine translated material needs to have the equivalent qualification to a translator covered by ISO 17100 quality standards.With machine translated material usually associated with a lower standard of translation quality, insisting on this high level of qualification for a human editor helps introduce some quality back into the process.

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