Research

Legal Depositions in New Delhi
posted by: Simmi Choudhary
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By Simmi Choudhary, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi

Interpretation is a thoroughly professional practice. Out of the several varied fields or sectors where Interpreters are required, the legal domain is one that makes use of professionaly trained competent Interpreters.

When it comes to legal cases, clear, precise and accurate communication between the parties involved, is extremely crucial for the outcome of the case. This stands particularly true for legal depositions. A legal deposition is a scenario where the lawyers get a chance to speak to the witnesses before the hearing in the court in front of a judge. Depositions are conducted only for civil cases and normally take place outside the court premises. Depositions also compulsorily take place under an oath. Normally, the purpose of conducting a deposition is to give an opportunity, to both the plaintiff and the defendant, to communicate and understand each other’s positions. At times, the witnesses do not understand and speak the language spoken and understood by the lawyers. Needless to say, in a legal case, it is prudent that the lawyers and the witnesses understand each other’s language, positions, attitudes, disposition, etc. To bridge the language gaps, a professional interpreter is needed for effectively communicating the expressions and information exchanged by the lawyers and the witnesses during the deposition. An experienced and competent Interpreter enables successful and smooth conduct of legal depositions where there is a gap in communication due to the language spoken by the parties involved.

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SOCIOCOGNITIVE AND THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES TO TERMINOLOGY
posted by: Ravi Kumar
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By Ravi Kumar, Founder, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi
The General Theory of Terminology (GTT), mainly conceptualized by E.Wüster in Vienna School, since 1930s, focuses on eliminating ambiguity from scientific and technical terminology through standardization.
The standardization of terms is achieved by using onomasiological approach, clear delineation of concepts, preference to intensional definition of concepts over extensional or part-whole definition, univocity, and synchrony (Temmerman 2000: 8-9). The methods used by the GTT do not allow the researchers to get details on the discursive and syntactic structures, grammatical rules and the language behavior. Moreover, the theory denies a formal and conceptual variation of specialized terminological units and reduces their functions to that of a denominative one (Cabré 2000:1). The need to find out ways to deal with the dynamic nature of the terminological units gave way to the new approaches.
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Interpreters in New Delhi
posted by: Simmi Choudhary
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By Simmi Choudhary, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi

What exactly does “Interpreting” mean? Is it possible for every bilingual or multilingual person to step into the shoes of a professional Interpreter and rightly claim to be one? Does interpretation merely require knowing two or more languages? Would one need to possess any other specific skills apart from the knowledge of languages? Well, these not so intriguing questions could occur to either someone who is planning to take up languages as a career or someone who needs to hire an interpreter.

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Language and Translation Industry of India
posted by: Ravi Kumar
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By Ravi Kumar, Founder - Modlingua Learning Pvt Ltd., New Delhi
President - Indian Translators Association, New Delhi
(Originally, this article was presented during the XVIIIth FIT World Congress, Shanghai, July 2008 and later published in the American Journal of Translation Studies, USA)
For understanding the Language and Translation Industry of India, it becomes mandatory for us to look at this nascent industry from the historical perspective that covers Indian multilingualism, recorded bilingualism, language policy, language clustering, policies and challenges, etc. It is this perspective with which we shall broach this paper, launching our theme with a brief on the language scenario in India through data and research references of well known scholars like Dr. Uday Narayan Singh, B. Mallikarjun, and J.C Sharma etc. We will follow through by presenting a brief on Local Language Information Technology Market citing the works of TDIL and CDAC followed by information and data on the language market by Microsoft, Common Sense Advisory and NASSCOM and a few of leading research agencies. The attempt, here, is to depict the overall scenario of the Indian Translation Industry which is presently open to participation from abroad in terms of collaboration and joint ventures in languages and translation activities.
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Schleiermachers Theory and Benipuri
posted by: Ravi Kumar
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By Ravi Kumar, Founder, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi

The selected hindi text is part of a short story “Razia’, Maati ki Mooraten –A collection of short stories by written by Ram Briksh Benipuri, during 1941-45.  Benipuri was born in the Benipur village of Muzaffarpur district of Bihar. He was freedom fighter and worked closely with Mahatma Gandhi. 

He is known for using subject oriented approach. His stories excavate layers after layers of his deep wisdom about people; his close observation of human nature goes beyond superficial evaluation. 

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posted by: Ravi Kumar
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By Afsar Soheila Sattari, Goal- Electronic Print Media & Training Services, Cologne

Note: This paper was presented at International Conference "Role of Translation in National Building and Supra Nationalism" held on December 16-19, 2010 at Instituto Cervantes, New Delhi and forms part of the digital book Theoretical and Empirical approaches to translation, Published by Modlingua, New Delhi   

There are persons, social groups and institutions, who clearly defend “naturalism1”, meaning that the human being has a relatively fixed nature and that culture is a phenomenon to ascertain the validity of one way of life. On the contrary, there are others, who defend "culturalism", which asserts a minimal set of social and cultural common features among different people and points out that the leaders and successful individuals of a society should own a pluralist perspective to manage the on-going procedures and emphasize on the necessity of providing a dialogue on cultural differences to guarantee a peaceful co-existence.

“UNESCO published a report2 describing that over 50% of the world’s languages are endangered by the great ones. 96% of the 6000 languages are spoken by only 4% of the population of the world, 90% of the world’s languages are not represented on the internet, one language disappears on average every two weeks and 80% of the African languages have no orthography.” On the other hand, English is spoken by around 500 million speakers throughout the five continents, Spanish is spoken by approximately 400 million speakers in more than 20 countries. Portuguese is spoken by 230 million people in Africa and Europe, as well as French, which is the mother tongue for almost 190000 people worldwide.

The speakers of every one of these languages are scattered in different countries and live in the extremely diverse, multilingual and multicultural societies and have to adopt themselves and co-exist with others. So far, cultural diversity can be an origin of social conflict by remaining unattended. To prevent that, the leaders should try to find solutions to turn racial, religious and tribal differences into strength.

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