Anthony Pym
posted by: Ravi Kumar
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Anthony Pym (born 1956, Perth, Australia) is a scholar best known for his work in translation studies. Pym is currently Professor of Translation and Intercultural Studies at Rovira i Virgili University in Spain.He is also President of the European Society for Translation Studies, a fellow of the Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Visiting Researcher at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, and Professor Extraordinary at Stellenbosch University.

Pym was one of the first to move the study of translation away from texts and towards translators as people. He has also conceptualized translating as a form of risk management, rather than a striving for equivalence. He has hypothesized that translators can be members of professional intercultures, operating in the overlaps of cultures, and that their highest ethical goal is the promotion of long-term cross-cultural cooperation. In recent years he has been attracted to the concept of inculturation, through which he sees translation as one of the ways in which minority cultures are absorbed into wider cultural systems and can then modify those wider systems.
Pym's ideas have been contrasted with those of the American translation theorist Lawrence Venuti by the Finnish translation scholar Kaisa Koskinen, and his critique of Venuti has been commented on by Jeremy Munday and Mary Snell-Hornby.

Schleiermacher and the problem of Blendlinge
Schleiermacher’s two opposed methods suppress a hidden middle term, the living translator, and the whole of Schleiermacher’s text is designed to silence that middle term. In fact, entire line of binary translation theories, ending with most recent found in Lawrence Venuti attempts to silence middle terms.

Pym does not find much of originality in the thought of Schleiermacher as the idea of moving the reader towards author was already present by Goethe first and Herder later but before Schleiermacher. Schleiermacher’s movement was more nationalist in nature, and it became more stronger by Napoleonic invasion of Germany in June 1813 a few days ahead of Schleiermacher ’s lecture.

Schleiermacher makes no reference to any actual translation, therefore, his text is chain of metaphors, and empty. Schleiermacher simply manipulates metaphors to say something about translation, and text can be seen as manipulating translation as a metaphor of belonging.

Schleiermacher idea of literal translation for rendering a sense of foreignness to be considered as highest and most difficult task comes close to most easiest and most foolish. Translators risk going too far, betraying themselves and their language. They risk upsetting what Lefevere lables, the most delicate balance (p156) strangely translating what Schleiermacher calls ‘die feinste Linie’, the fines of lines (p56). Schleiermacher will be upset, in any case ‘because everyone strikes that balance’.

On the matter of Blendlinge, Pym defines that this is a positive word even in the German context, therefore, he strongly criticizes Schleiermacher for reinforcing cultural nationalism and considers Blendlinge as substantial people, as the intercultural communities to which translators could belong. In doing, translation studies might promote mediation rather than separation. Translation history could help give such communities a substantial past; translation ethics should help develop their regime; and the training of the translators could openly contribute to their ranks. Hence importance of human Blendlinge in translation studies.

Like Dryden, Schleiermacher refers to unnatural movements, to the translator as a sideshow performer. He similarly recognizes these as the dangers of literalism, and yet since Schleiermacher supports the literalism that Dryden opposes, he ironizes these negative values in two ways. First he mixes in bizarre isotopic complex based on the family (mother tongue, unnatural children, children abandoned to acrobats). Second, he proposes to shock the reader as much as is necessary to keep him aware of what he is doing (ie readers know that they are reading translation, announcing what amounts to translating alienation effect.

While trying to demand too much from the translator to fully implement the reader- to- author method, Schleiermacher forgets to recognize identify of the translator who is the main mediator between two cultures and remains between the reader and the writer. In the words of Anthony Pym, “In historical terms, the exclusion suppresses most of the intercultural people that have produced great translators. It gets rid of Zwischenstaaten that have long mediated-and translated – between France and Germany, and are too easily forgotten as the gristle of the European Union. It also suppresses virtually all the conceptual tools I use to think about translation”.

Notes: Binary Translation: Pertinent to linguistic theories is Newmark’s binary classification of translation into semantic and communicative, which somehow resembles Nida’s formal and dynamic equivalence. “Communicative translation,” Newmark (1981:39) states, “attempts to produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained on the original. Semantic translation attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the second language allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original. figure (Newmark,1981: 39): ST BIAS – LITERAL- FAITHFUL- SEMANTIC against TT BIAS – FREE- IDIOMATIC- COMMUNICATIVE

Legal Depositions in New Delhi
posted by: Simmi Choudhary
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By Simmi Choudhary, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi

Interpretation is a thoroughly professional practice. Out of the several varied fields or sectors where Interpreters are required, the legal domain is one that makes use of professionaly trained competent Interpreters.

When it comes to legal cases, clear, precise and accurate communication between the parties involved, is extremely crucial for the outcome of the case. This stands particularly true for legal depositions. A legal deposition is a scenario where the lawyers get a chance to speak to the witnesses before the hearing in the court in front of a judge. Depositions are conducted only for civil cases and normally take place outside the court premises. Depositions also compulsorily take place under an oath. Normally, the purpose of conducting a deposition is to give an opportunity, to both the plaintiff and the defendant, to communicate and understand each other’s positions. At times, the witnesses do not understand and speak the language spoken and understood by the lawyers. Needless to say, in a legal case, it is prudent that the lawyers and the witnesses understand each other’s language, positions, attitudes, disposition, etc. To bridge the language gaps, a professional interpreter is needed for effectively communicating the expressions and information exchanged by the lawyers and the witnesses during the deposition. An experienced and competent Interpreter enables successful and smooth conduct of legal depositions where there is a gap in communication due to the language spoken by the parties involved.

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posted by: Ravi Kumar
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By Ravi Kumar, Founder, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi
The General Theory of Terminology (GTT), mainly conceptualized by E.Wüster in Vienna School, since 1930s, focuses on eliminating ambiguity from scientific and technical terminology through standardization.
The standardization of terms is achieved by using onomasiological approach, clear delineation of concepts, preference to intensional definition of concepts over extensional or part-whole definition, univocity, and synchrony (Temmerman 2000: 8-9). The methods used by the GTT do not allow the researchers to get details on the discursive and syntactic structures, grammatical rules and the language behavior. Moreover, the theory denies a formal and conceptual variation of specialized terminological units and reduces their functions to that of a denominative one (Cabré 2000:1). The need to find out ways to deal with the dynamic nature of the terminological units gave way to the new approaches.
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Interpreters in New Delhi
posted by: Simmi Choudhary
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By Simmi Choudhary, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi

What exactly does “Interpreting” mean? Is it possible for every bilingual or multilingual person to step into the shoes of a professional Interpreter and rightly claim to be one? Does interpretation merely require knowing two or more languages? Would one need to possess any other specific skills apart from the knowledge of languages? Well, these not so intriguing questions could occur to either someone who is planning to take up languages as a career or someone who needs to hire an interpreter.

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Language and Translation Industry of India
posted by: Ravi Kumar
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By Ravi Kumar, Founder - Modlingua Learning Pvt Ltd., New Delhi
President - Indian Translators Association, New Delhi
(Originally, this article was presented during the XVIIIth FIT World Congress, Shanghai, July 2008 and later published in the American Journal of Translation Studies, USA)
For understanding the Language and Translation Industry of India, it becomes mandatory for us to look at this nascent industry from the historical perspective that covers Indian multilingualism, recorded bilingualism, language policy, language clustering, policies and challenges, etc. It is this perspective with which we shall broach this paper, launching our theme with a brief on the language scenario in India through data and research references of well known scholars like Dr. Uday Narayan Singh, B. Mallikarjun, and J.C Sharma etc. We will follow through by presenting a brief on Local Language Information Technology Market citing the works of TDIL and CDAC followed by information and data on the language market by Microsoft, Common Sense Advisory and NASSCOM and a few of leading research agencies. The attempt, here, is to depict the overall scenario of the Indian Translation Industry which is presently open to participation from abroad in terms of collaboration and joint ventures in languages and translation activities.
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Schleiermachers Theory and Benipuri
posted by: Ravi Kumar
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By Ravi Kumar, Founder, Modlingua Learning, New Delhi

The selected hindi text is part of a short story “Razia’, Maati ki Mooraten –A collection of short stories by written by Ram Briksh Benipuri, during 1941-45.  Benipuri was born in the Benipur village of Muzaffarpur district of Bihar. He was freedom fighter and worked closely with Mahatma Gandhi. 

He is known for using subject oriented approach. His stories excavate layers after layers of his deep wisdom about people; his close observation of human nature goes beyond superficial evaluation. 

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