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By Shaifali Khulbe

The power relations express relations of domination and suggest that translation cannot be neutral. These power relations may be political, economic or cultural and portray the hierarchical trend in the global system of translations. 

Accordingly, the worldwide distribution of translation in  languages maybe categorized into 4 sections:

•  Hyper-Central: English  which hold a top spot in the hierarchy and is the source text in most of the translation works.
•  Central: Languages like French and German which are positioned in the second rung of the hierarchical ladder.
•  Semi-Peripheral: Spanish, Italian etc.
•  Peripheral: Rest of the languages which rank lowest in the distribution of translational works.

The hierarchy among the languages is irrespective of the number of speakers they have, rather it depends on social, economic and cultural
factors. These power relations are universal in nature and their manifestations can be seen when narrowed down in on to the languages that are spoken in a particular geographical area, let's say in a particular country.

In the context of India, different regional languages hold different positions as per their cultural, economic and political influence and
the flow of translation activities moves from Central to peripheral zones. The peripheral languages have more acceptance for the dominant
languages and the Cental languages are usually less receptive towards the other and they have larger share in the number of books translated
into other languages.  As a translator we may observe  that a language garnering more capital value being the dominant language takes
precedence in translational works and has a clear sway over other languages. The dominated language being constantly shaped under the
influence of the Central language. 

Power relations, as well explained in the article are of three types: Political, cultural and economic. Thus we see how the power relations work in the translation work on analysing the cultural status of hierarchy explained above.  Also, the international cultural exchange depends upon the political relations between countries and political orientation of the government and ecnomic relations like the international book market involving liberalization of the book market.

Cultural exchange between countries in the form of literal exchange is what favours the translation industry which can again be analysed through the point of view of dominant languages. As explained in the article ' the dominated languages are those endowed with little literary capital and low international recognition. The dominant languages, due to their specific prestige, their antiquity, and the number of texts that are written in these languages and that are universally regarded as important, possess much literary capital.'
Concerning International cultural exchange, government institutions such as embassies, cultural institutes, translation institutes etc. play the role of agents. 

Thus we observe how translation is a socially regulated activity completing working on powe relations. Like any other succesful industry, its important to undertand and work according the knowledge of power relations in the translation industry.

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By Shaifali Khulbe

A project is a time constrained activity in order to carry out a task with the end result as a completed service or product having a defined beginning and end.  Project management, as the suggests, means the management of the plan, its execution, controlling and assuring the completion in the given time which is in fact the main goal of project management, i.e., to  achieve the project goal.

Temporary, having specific beginning and end, but unique, since it's not a routine task or activity but a method to carry out different tasks. It has some basic phases. The very first is the initiation of a project i.e., the relevance of ideas and to determine if a project is realistically accomplishable. In this phase, a decision making team works upon the concept of the project. The next phase is the planning of the project. After initiation, the upcoming works and priorities in the project are planned in order to be carried out. The outline of the project is made and all the resources that'll be required are worked upon. Then comes the execution of the outline. Teams are given responsibilities of specific tasks. The next one is the controlling of the performances which means to tract the status and progress of the plan. The project must be on track so everything is monitored. The very last phase is the closing phase in which the task is complete and the client has approved of the work thus an evaluation is done in order to learn from the completed project. 

This project-based approach to business has enough benefits because of which we, now-a-days, find so many business demanding for project managers. The management of a project also helps in the management of the resources. Since all the resources to-be-required are predefined, the problem of overuse or lack of resources is already taken care. It also helps in time regulation. Thus a proper time period is allotted to the completion of a certain project. So one can also place more projects right after one project is complete since the time slots are predefined. It establishes a structured approach to define roles and responsibility to carry out and deliver a project. It also helps in working on the commitment approach for the team and managers. Also, there is a systematic process in order to tackle any changes in the objective thus ensuring that the final product or result does not alter or has to be compromised with. 

Thus we find that project management serves rightly in the completion of a project. Also, it helps the manager who oversees the project, the client who anxiously awaits for the completed project and the production team which gets the project up and running. It also is an efficient way to work on delivery services. It leads to customer satisfaction. It turns out to be a great way to enhance the quality of work of your team as well as adding to the development and the growth of the team and team members. As project management works in a time constraint, the flexibility must be questionable. But the truth is, it offers complete flexibility and it is actually one the best advantages of project management. 

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